This file was prepared for electronic distribution by the inforM staff. Questions or comments should be directed to email@example.com. The NWSA Project to Improve Service Learning in Women's Studies Supported by a two-year grant from the Fund for the Improvement of Post-secondary Education, NWSA's Project to Improve Service Learning in Women's Studies is a clearinghouse for information about the current state of field experience education in women's studies. Among activities generated since it began in 1979, the Project has sponsored the Women's Studies Service Learning Institute (a week-long faculty development seminar), seven regional workshops (mini-versions of the Institute), and has offered program sessions at the NWSA National Conventions. Workshop Sites, 1980-81: Portland State University, Portland, Oregon--October 24, 1980 De Anza Community College, San Jose, California--October 31, 1980 University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, Colorado--January 30, 1981 Southeast Women's Studies Association Conference, Georgia State University, Atlanta--March 6, 1981 New York Women's Studies Association Conference, SUNY/Buffalo--March 20, 1981 Mid-Atlantic Women's Studies Association Conference, Goucher College, Baltimore--April 4, 1981 Great Lakes Women's Studies Association Conference, Mankato State University, Mankato--April 10, 1981 The National Women's Studies Association Founded in 1977, the National Women's Studies Association (NWSA) is a grassroots organization which draws its membership from all fifty states and associate members from abroad. NWSA offers networking and support for teachers, administrators, and students in women's studies programs, as well as those involved in feminist education in the community. Members receive the Women's Studies Quarterly, a publication which offers articles on teaching women's studies in various settings; reports of Association activities; news of jobs, conferences, institutes, fellowships, and new publications and resources. The National Women's Studies Association meets at an annual conference which brings together thousands of women and men to participate in program panels, workshops, affiliated meetings, working sessions of NWSA regions, caucuses, committees, and task forces. The conference provides opportunities for networking, project development, and sharing among participants. Acknowledgements The editors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of National Women's Studies Association staff members Rebecca Fowler, Dorothy Maxwell and Jan Meriwether. We would also like to thank Mary Scoggins and her associates at Letter Perfect of Landover Hills, MD. PROJECT ADVISORY BOARD Elizabeth Downs, Executive Director, Washington Center for Learning Alternatives Ruth B. Ekstrom, Research Scientist, Educational Testing Service Carol Eliason, Director, Center for Women's Opportunities Kathryn Girard, Co-Director, Project TEAM (Teaching Equity Approaches in Massachusetts) Nancy Hoffman, Ex-Officio, Program Officer, Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education Jane Kendall, Associate Executive Director, National Society for Internships in Experiential Education Morris Keeton, President, Council for the Advancement of Experiential Learning Jessy Leonard, Associate Professor, Counseling and Personnel Services, University of Maryland, College Park Carol Parr, Executive Director, Women's Equity Action League Carol Pearson, Associate Professor, Women's Studies and American Studies, University of Maryland, College Park Sharon Rubin, Director, Experiential Learning Programs, University of Maryland, College Park CONTENTS Introduction Jerilyn Fisher and Elaine Reuben REFLECTIONS AND FORMULATIONS Women Thinking Together: The NWSA Service Learning Institute Barbara Hillyer Davis Service Learning: Three Principles Robert Sigmon Reflections on a Typology for Experiential Education Thomas Haugsby MULTIPLE MODELS Service Learning and the Women's Studies Curriculum Carolyn Shrewsbury The Women's Studies Practicum at Loretto Heights: Case Study for Small Colleges and Small Programs Betsy Jameson Integrating Theory and Practice in a Service Learning Co-Seminar Nancy Schniedewind Bridging Theory and the Practicum: A Course in Women's Studies Melanie Kaye The National Congress of Neighborhood Women: Education in the Community Laura Polla Scanlon Returning Women and Field Experience: A Preliminary Research Study Sharon Rubin The Congressional Internships on Women and Public Policy Phyllis M. Palmer An Internship in Science, Politics and Feminism I. Description of a Pilot Project M. Sue Wagner and Alwynelle S. Ahl II. A Student Perspective Amy N. Moss Feminist Learning Opportunities in Experiential Education Ann Simon VARIOUS VIEWS Setting the Stage for Field Placement Appendix: Format for a Field Supervisor Manual Marti Bombyk The Internship Program at WEAL Fund Maxine Forman Student Impact in Two Community Settings I. The Invisible Women Carolyn Mulford II. Raises not Roses Ellen Cassedy A Student Guide to Field Learning Experiences Lizette Bartholdi, Laurie Bushbaum, Debra Horn, Denise Johnson, Kimberly M. Reynolds-Heiam, Karen Theiler, Robin Williams-Johnson Coping with Difficult Placements: Two Case Studies I. Frustration, Anger and Learning at a Rape Crisis Center Stacey Zlotnick II. Growth Through Conflict in a Student-Directed Project Toni Johnson Reflections on Surviving as an Intern Judy Sorum To Arm the Amazons: Students at Feminist Worksites Kathryn Girard Tools for Guiding and Evaluating Service Learning Appendix: Inventory of Knowledge, Skills and Attitude Objectives Patty Gibbs Assessment of Service Learning: Student Achievement and Program Effectiveness Nancy Ashton Evaluating Service Learning Programs in Women's Studies Ruth B. Ekstrom RESOURCES FOR SERVICE LEARNING IN WOMEN'S STUDIES Additional References Selected Bibliography A Women's Studies Guide to Internship Directories Media Resources for Women's Studies Service Learning Courses Possible Goals for Service Learning in Women's Studies Worksheets: Student Goal Analysis Sample Course Descriptions, Syllabi and Learning Tools Contributors' Notes Response Form Introduction Links between community and campus, social action and research have always been vital to pedagogy and curriculum development in women's studies. Growing from the resurgent women's movement, still-expanding numbers of women's studies courses and programs in postsecondary education maintain connection to this community-based heritage. The integration of experience and theory is made visible to women's studies students, for example, when courses and program events include presentations by, and participation of, community women. Many women's studies courses assign interviews with family members or research about activists/professionals in related fields. Other courses and program activities may involve individual or collective action projects responsive to women's needs or interests on campus and in the community. Experiential learning courses make explicit these connections. Women's studies internships, field placements and practica can play a critical role in the feminist curriculum. They offer leadership skills development; they structure opportunities for students to explore values and vocational options while working on local or national "women's issues" or critically examining sexist practices and attitudes within patriarchical organizations. The service learning component of a women's studies program can, as well, provide a framework for ongoing advocacy activities. The National Women's Studies Association obtained support from The Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education in September, 1979, to assess current practice and program needs in this area of women's studies curriculum, and to make available materials for course development. A further objective of the NWSA Project to Improve Service Learning in Women's Studies was to link feminist educators who teach, supervise and administer programs for fieldwork students with each other and with other networks of experiential learning. The Project sponsored a weeklong residential seminar in March, 1980, that brought together faculty and program administrators experienced in women's studies service learning. Participants in that Women's Studies Service Learning Institute, and Institute consultants, represented a spectrum of institutional settings for experiences of and perspectives on women's studies service learning. Institute participants and consultants comprise the majority of contributors to this Handbook; additionally, we sought and included articles, case studies and materials from other faculty, administrators, students and community workers. The Women's Studies Service Learning Handbook thus provides many approaches to women's studies service learning and an overview of the dynamics of field experience education from a feminist perspective. The first three essays, "Reflections and Formulations," deal with experiential education generally, service learning more specifically, and women's studies service learning most particularly--the latter through the experience of one participant in the Women's Studies Service Learning Institute. This section introduces service learning issues, rationales and vocabulary that will recur throughout the volume. "Multiple Models" is a series of case studies of institutional adaptations of women's studies service learning, primarily presented from the point of view of faculty and program administrators. We have tried to emphasize, through the range of models here, that experiential courses in women's studies can be designed and offered within various postsecondary educational settings, and in relation to the needs of diverse student populations and community networks. "Various Views" of women's studies service learning features the perspectives of students and agency supervisors as well as faculty and administrators. These essays and related materials remind that there are many ways to consider the practicum: in terms of student response, community involvement and external evaluations. The "Resources" section of the Handbook contains additional tools and materials for establishing or developing service learning courses. More information about particular courses or resources can be requested from the programs and organizations indicated; readers should note that, over time, some of these teaching materials will have been revised as the shape and dimensions of women's studies and service learning continue to develop. During its second year of activities, the Project contributed to that development through sponsorship of seven regional workshops on women's studies service learning. Just as the national and regional presence of the National Women's Studies Association has helped empower academic feminists creating or sustaining women's studies courses and programs, the presence of an NWSA/FIPSE Project to Improve Service Learning in Women's Studies made this area of curriculum development visible to its diverse participants and lent credibility and support to internship courses still in "shaky" status within their institutions. Within a similar general format, these several 1980-81 regional workshops naturally differed somewhat in their "flavor," and in the problems and issues upon which the group attending chose to focus. Some factors were common, however, both building upon and extending the Project's cumulative assessment of practice and possibilities, need and problems in women's studies service learning. At most workshops, a panel of students and supervisors generated invigorating discussion of the joys and stresses of field placement from the agency perspective and from the point of view of working interns. In addition to these invited presenters, the workshop groups overall included not only faculty and administrators formally affiliated with women's studies programs, but also academic and community-based feminist educators affiliated with women's centers, re-entry programs et al. and with programs in social work, the ministry, psychology, criminal justice, library science, etc., that have traditionally placed and accepted students in work/learning courses. While the Project, and this Handbook, were shaped with the experience of women's studies programs in mind, we have been concerned to facilitate closer identification and productive exchange between these establishing service learning courses in women's studies and feminists in such applied, often (numerically) female-dominated fields (*). At all the regional workshops, participants were enthusiastic about this opportunity to concentrate on a feminist perspective for experiential learning, and to share strategies and suggestions with each other and with Project staff. On several occasions, the group made plans to continue, within their regional structure or at the next regional conference. We also expect dialogue in this area will be maintained through the networks of women's studies program administrators. The workshops highlighted the persistent and persisting need of women's studies programs for institutional resources and administrative support for their service learning curriculum development, an issue addressed only by implication in this Handbook. Many of the programs now offering service learning courses do so only through extra, often unpaid efforts of an overworked director, graduate student or part-time faculty member, hardpressed to coordinate its activities and outreach on and off campus, as well as to advise, supervise and teach. We must urge that, as women's studies service learning courses continue to be developed, greater institutional support--even in these hard times--be forthcoming; we would expect that, as well, programs will seek and find creative, collaborative structures on and off campus, to support such development. We would hope that the work of the Project, and this Handbook, will prove useful to the advancement of feminist education, in the classroom and in the community. The NWSA Project to Improve Service Learning in Women's Studies will end, but not conclude, with the completion of activities outlined in our FIPSE grant, August, 1981. After, the NWSA National Office will continue to collect materials in women's studies service learning, to facilitate network linkages and to coordinate national and regional service learning activities. While we cannot, at this time, promise to continue subsidized workshops and conference sessions, we will be able to suggest and refer to consultants, workshop leaders and presenters from both national and regional pools. We urge you to return the Reader Response Form included in this Handbook, and to share other responses to the work of the Project. The Women's Studies Service Learning Handbook will continue to be available as long as supplies last, by which time it will be possible to consider a second printing or a revised, expanded second edition. Jerilyn Fisher Elaine Reuben College Park, 1981 NOTE (*) The postsecondary focus of The Project to Improve Service Learning precluded direct attention to related curriculum development in public school settings. The National Center for Service Learning, cited in the "Resources" section, does offer workshops and materials for secondary school educators. Some women's studies programs now work with public schools as settings for service learning placements. Chapter 1: REFLECTIONS AND FORMULATIONS WOMEN THINKING TOGETHER: THE NWSA SERVICE LEARNING INSTITUTE Barbara Hillyer Davis We met in a convent. As we arrived at the imposing marble entrance of the National Mercy Center, a serene rural retreat house in Potomac, Maryland, each of us wondered just what we had applied and been accepted for. As we learned, it really was a retreat--a time of meditation and intensive thought about community and learning, about the engagement of women's studies students in social change. Fifteen women had been chosen to participate in the NWSA Service Learning Institute. We had in common a particular interest in the relationship of feminist education to "experiential learning": in other respects, we were very different from one another. On the first evening we introduced ourselves and our reasons for participating in the week-long seminar. One woman commented on the variety of dress and physical appearance; it was a group of individuals who were quite comfortable being themselves. We didn't, as groups often do, begin to look more alike as the week went on. We grew closer by learning to understand our diversity, to foresee each other's concerns. It was, like other less academic retreats, an illuminating experience. The fifteen official participants came from women's studies programs, professional schools, large universities and state colleges, small liberal arts colleges, urban centers, rural communities, hill country and plains, midwest, west, east, and south. We were students and professors, between 20 and 50 years in age, athletic and sedentary. All of us had administered some kind of educational program for women. Most were directly involved in service learning, practicum, or internship programs. In "the convent"--a location which encouraged us to reexamine our ideas about sisterhood--we were able to focus for a week on a single subject, an unusual experience for all of us. A number of others joined us for parts of the Institute; for their shorter visits they, too, were focused on the one subject, the relationship of service learning to feminist education. The resource people were interested in one or the other of these--or both--but we were the practitioners, we discovered, who had the collective experience to connect their disparate insights. It was the first time that feminist educators in service learning had come together specifically and only to think through what we are doing. Because of our own "field experience," our thinking was concrete, based on realistic assessment of what is possible and what is not. This was a "think tank" in a retreat setting, but not an ivory tower. For five days, we met with resource people who presented us with their perspectives on experiential education. Jerilyn Fisher and Elaine Reuben, administrators of the NWSA Service Learning Project, described its pragmatic structure and goals and raised philosophical questions about service, about learning, about women's studies--about feminist service learning. These questions, increasingly emphasizing the word "feminist," preoccupied us during the week. The first group of speakers were people whose primary professional work is in the field of experiential education, service learning, or other intern/practicum experience. Morris Keeton from the Council for the Advancement of Experiential Learning, Alana Smart from the National Center for Service Learning, and a panel, Debbie Dana, Marcy Devine and Clare Guimondfrom the Washington Center for Learning Alternatives, provided a variety of materials, descriptions of their projects' goals and activities, and their own ideas about how their work relates to women's studies. The illumination came, for us, in the discussion periods after their presentations and in our own working groups in which we compared our experience to theirs and began to understand both similarities and differences. A second group of resource people described for us their own field experience of women studies service learning. A panel of field supervisors of women's studies interns one evening was followed the next morning by a panel of students who described their experience of the same situation. Sharon Rubin, Director of Experiential Learning Programs, University of Maryland, presented varieties of the service learning teaching component, which could be used as a forum to discuss and coordinate students and site supervisors observations. These three presentations were less "inspirational," more focused on problems, than the first group of presentations had been. Again, the discussion surrounding the sessions was where the experience came together for us. The separate panels enabled us to connect for ourselves from the three different perspectives what students do and don't learn in field placements. The intersection of the learning goals of teacher, student and site supervisor was examined in terms of our experience as well as the panelists'. We integrated our understanding of the complex process over lunch and dinner and a heated discussion of a film on "women and careers" which reflected a more conservative view of what workplace learning is about. On the third day of the Institute we had dinner with the Advisory Board of the NWSA project. Here the "vision" of the project connected with our realistic experience with students, colleges, agencies and supervisors. As we talked about the Institute and what women's studies and service learning are "really" like, we began to see ourselves as the people who best know this new field--and the Advisory Board members as those who understood the significance of our getting together before we did. Another series of Institute sessions focused on the practical development of the field experience. There were sessions on evaluation by Ruth Ekstrom of Educational Testing Service and by our own work groups; on student-centered counseling by Georgia Sassen of the Field Study Program of Hampshire College; on women as workers, especially in feminist or sexist work sites, by Kathryn Girard of the Women's Educational Equity Project of the University of Massachusetts; and on coping strategies for women interns by Judy Sorum of the Department of Labor. Here, especially in the sessions with Girard and Sorum, we learned by identifying with the student in the placement--and remembering our own working experience--to consolidate our understanding ofwhat is different about feminist service learning. A Friday morning visit to three Washington, D. C. work sites was less effective in its goal of enabling us to see the experience from the student's perspective than were the sessions which called on us to remember our own experiences in feminist organizations and in male-dominated workplaces. While all of these sessions were going on, and between and around them, the creative work of the Institute was taking place in our minds and the conversations among us. Small group working sessions were scattered through the agenda, each followed by a lively report-back session. We consumed large quantities of newsprint and magic markers, to say nothing of coffee and ice water and healthy convent food, as we integrated, evaluated, thought and rethought the issues before us. On Thursday night we reviewed our relationship to the NWSA Service Learning Project. On Saturday morning, evaluating the Institute, we found ourselves arguing that we, who came to learn from others, knew more than those others about what we had come to learn. Somehow the process of learning together had changed us. The evidence was an extraordinarily productive group of work sessions on Saturday afternoon in which we developed practical plans for future activities of the NWSA project. The diverse group which had met for the first time less than a week before was thinking together in a way that seemed almost magic, with ideas flowing so easily between minds that they were genuinely collective, belonging to no single individual. These plans, for NWSA conference sessions, for regional workshops, and for this handbook, all included the high value we placed on our own group process and its potential as a model for the expansion of knowledge about feminist education in service learning. We learned from our retreat how much we already know about the relationship between women's studies and service learning. And we found that that knowledge lies not just in what we are individually doing but especially in what happens when we think about it together. My own experience in the Institute illustrates the effect of this group dynamic. The women's studies program which I coordinate does not have a service learning course. Since I knew that many programs consider field placement essential, we intended to institute a service learning component assoon as possible. I came to the Institute to learn how, believing myself to be an amateur with no experience relevant to this goal. Our Institute group was very practical, so that I did indeed learn a lot about how to do it, but something else happened there as well. Like many groups that live together, we became friends, but the intimacy was much less personal and more idea-oriented than in other groups I have known. Only occasionally was our conversation not about women's studies or service learning; even our play (a game called "feminist charades") focused on feminist thought. The persistence of our shared interest enabled us to anticipate each others' perspectives on new ideas and to think out of each others'characteristic concerns. As I saw the remarkable work the other group members were doing with students and businesses and women's organizations, and understood how difficult and sophisticated and rewarding that work is when it is done as well as we agreed it should be done, I was both inspired by their example and appalled by costs . Everyone at the Institute who was involved with a women's studies service learning course was doing it on a temporary or part time or over-load basis (and in some cases all of the above). The actual psychological costs and the potential monetary costs are very high. As a program administrator, I became much more cautious about implementing service learning than I had been before the Institute, even though I was much more fully persuaded of its importance. Because of the way the group worked, however, this discovery did not reduce my commitment. Rather, it increased my interest in thinking through with the group the importance of developing adequate monetary and social support. These concerns informed many of our discussions. As we explored the issue I recognized certain aspects of my experience that were closely connected to service learning whose relevance had not been immediately obvious: I have been a "site supervisor" for human relations interns and journalism interns; students in my women's studies courses are often social work or human relations interns and bring their field experience, good and bad, into the classroom. Almost inadvertently I have been supplying a women's studies component to these internship experiences. At the end of the Institute I was not perceiving these things--my administrative concerns about resources and my experience with student interns--as "my" contributions to the Institute. Indeed, looking back on the experience, I am able only with difficulty to separate them from the experiences of all the other participants. I do so because they illustrate an important fact about our thinking together: it was very practical, involving a clear concept of what is involved in the work of feminist service learning,of how to do it, and what it costs. Sharing the details of our experiences in co-seminars and other classes, in feminist or sexist workplaces, in university administration and in lunch room conversations made our "think tank" quite concrete. To our rural retreat, we brought much experience of the world. We were not "best friends" but intimate co-workers. Our learning, like that we plan for students, was practical, realistic, experiential, intellectual, and feminist. It certainly was a nice change from our various male-dominated workplaces. NOTES 1. The fifteen participants are Nancy Ashton, Women's Studies, Stockton State College, New Jersey; Marti Bombyk, Women's Studies, University of Michigan; Barbara Hillyer Davis, Women's Studies, University of Oklahoma; Patty Gibbs, Social Work, University of West Virginia; Betsy Jameson, Women's Studies, Loretto Heights College, Colorado; Miriam King, Women's Studies, Michigan State University; Heather Paul Kurent, Women's Studies, University of Maryland; Pat Miller, Women's Studies, University of Connecticut; Connie Noschese, National Congress of Neighborhood Women, New York; Phyllis Palmer, Women's Studies, George Washington University, D. C.; Deborah Pearlman, Goddard College, Massachusetts; Stephanie Riger, Lake Forest College, Illinois; Nancy Schniedewind, State University of New York New Paltz; Ann Simon, Cooperate Education Program, Antioch College, Ohio; and Carolyn Shrewsbury, Women's Studies, Mankato State University, Minnesota. 2. Field Supervisor panelists were Elayne Clift, National Women's Health Network; Gigi Goldfrank, D.C. Feminist Law Collective; Sara Jane Kinoy, Women's Equity Action League; and Claudia Schecter, Women's Legal Defense Fund. The student panel was moderated by Lise Blaes, intern, University of Maryland, and included Barbara Schnipper, intern, National Women's Health Network; Nancy Marucci, intern, D.C. Feminist Law Collective; and Stacey Zlotnick, intern, Prince George's County Sexual Assault Center. SERVICE LEARNING: THREE PRINCIPLES Robert Sigmon (This essay originally appeared in `Synergist', the Journal of ACTION's National Student Volunteer Program, Spring 1979, Vol. 8, No. 1, and is reprinted by permission.) Service-learning terminology has emerged in the past 10 years, and--as in the case of many traditional Christmas carols--the authors are unknown. The great carols belong to the public, a product of folk traditions at their best. Service-learning represents the coming together of many hearts and minds seeking to express compassion for others and to enable a learning style to grow out of service. The term service-learning is now used to describe numerous voluntary action and experiential education programs. Federal laws now use the phrase. Its diffusion suggests that several meanings now are attributed to service-learning. If we are to establish clear goals and work efficiently to meet them, we need to move toward a precise definition. The following notes indicate three fundamental principles of service-learning and several tools for practitioners who are involved with service delivery and learning programs. My first contact with service-learning was in the late 1940's when the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB)--using federal dollars--popularized a service-learning internship model. Service-learning at that time was defined as the integration of the accomplishment of a public task with conscious educational growth. A typical service-learning activity was a 10- to 15-week full-time experience in which students carried out work tasks in communities while also receiving academic credit and/or financial remuneration. Voluntary action and experiential education programs have grown steadily in this country during the past decade. Service-learning rarely has been examined carefully as a style and has been much overshadowed by more popular program styles. These, in brief, are: ù "Classroom-based experiential education" in the form of simulations, games, programmed instruction, computerized learning packages, group process techniques, and library-based independent study; ù "Career exposure and life-style planning programs", part of the massive career education movement that has-been--popularized by the writings of such people as Richard Bolles; ù "Outward Bound" programs and their counterparts using outdoor and wilderness settings for growth and learning; ù "Cooperative education", an example of the vocational programs placing students primarily in "for profit" settings; ù Adult self-initiated learning exercises sustained without the aid of educational institutions or professional teachers; ù Programs rooted in public need settings, including voluntary action programs, public service internships, academically based field practica, and some work-study programs. All six styles have in common an emphasis on individual development. Programs based in public need settings add service to others as a major dimension. The service-learning style is best understood in this type of program, for it focuses on both those being served and those serving. Based on my work designing, managing, and evaluating programs with service and learning dimensions, and with a spirit of inquiry about how any of us serve well and are served well by our actions? I suggest the following three principles for those in similar positions. Principle One: Those being served control the service(s) provided. Principle Two: Those being served become better able to serve and be served by their own actions. Principle Three: Those who serve also are learners and have significant control over what is expected to be learned. Robert Greenleaf, author of "Servant Leadership, A Journey into the Nature of Legitimate Power and Greatness" (1) defines service as it is used in this service-learning formulation. One who serves takes care to make sure that other people's highest priority needs are being served. The best test, and difficult to administer, is: do those served grow as persons; do they while being served, become healthier, wiser, freer, more auto- nomous, more likely them selves to become servants? And, what is the effect on the least privileged in society, will they benefit, or, at least, will they not be further deprived? Learning flows from the service task(s). To serve in the spirit of the Greenleaf definition requires attentive inquiry with those served and careful examination of what is needed in order to serve well. As a result, learning objectives are formed in the context of what needs to be done to serve others. Unfortunately learning objectives may be superimposed upon rather than derived from the service task even in programs that strive to adopt the service-learning style. In the SREB service-learning internship model of the 1960's, for example, the hyphen between service and learning was highlighted because it illustrated the link between the two. Unfortunately, the nature of the service received limited attention; the focus was on the learning outcomes sought. The proper emphasis in service-learning, in my view, is not on the link between the two, but on the distinctiveness of a service situation as a learning setting. Over the years I have been exposed to people who teach and develop tools that aid individuals and institutions in planning for and carrying out service-learning activities in accordance with these three principles. An awareness-building exercise for prospective servers helps assure that principles one and two are taken into account. The exercise is a simple process of using guided questions based on a distinction between "acquirers" and "recipients" of services. To be an "acquirer" suggests active involvement in the request for and control of a service. As an "acquirer" an individual or institution is involved in some self-analysis of the situation and is active in selecting the type of service and provider. To be a "recipient" connotes limited, if any, active participation in seeking assistance, treatment, or help. To understand the distinctions between "acquirers" and "recipients" and to plan activities, students can : ù Describe one or more situations in which each has been an "acquirer" of a service; ù Describe one or more situations in which has been a "recipient" of a service; ù Describe one or more situations in which each has been a direct service provider to an individual, organization (Were those served viewed as "acquirers"or recipients"?); ù Discuss these experiences with a partner or a small group; ù List the key themes noted in the descriptions of services; ù Examine these themes alongside the three service-learning principles, or the Greenleaf definition of service, or within the "acquirer"-"recipient" framework; ù Move into various phases of discussion and planning for a service-learning activity. An analytical tool for looking at four basic constituencies in service delivery situations has been helpful to me. The first constituency is made up of those who acquire services; the second, service providers; the third, technology developers (those who budget, plan, manage, develop curricula, design, monitor and generally run things); and the fourth, those who provide resources, the policy makers . Service learning projects can have as the "acquirer" of service any of these four constituencies. The central question is: Does the service being provided make any sense to those expected to benefit from the services delivered? Will they be better able to serve themselves and others because of it? Closely related is the question of who are the individuals who fill the roles in any service delivery activity. And how do they relate to one another? The accompanying Service Task Check List is a practical tool for examining program elements and actors in most voluntary action or public service-oriented internships. Seven participants are listed along the horizontal axis, and 10 program functions associated with student projects are listed on the vertical axis. The Check List can be used in several ways. The list across the top introduces major categories of actors in a service-learning activity and their distinctive expectations, roles, and relationship patterns. The questions down the left side relate to the development and implementation of a service project and can be guides for planning an activity. Participants should be required to be specific in the responses and encouraged to examine closely the implications of who controls the services to be rendered. A faculty member, an agency supervisor, and the student involved can use the list to examine a student's service-learning activity. Two avenues of analysis are possible: What are the similarities and differences in perspective among the three participants, and who in fact is in control of the services being provided? As a planning tool for individual projects, the Check List canprovide a similar overview of who will be in charge and how each participant views the control issues in a proposed activity. (page 15 table appears here) In order to review a departmental or institution-wide service-oriented education program either being planned or in existence, different constituencies can complete the check list and then note and discuss comparisons and contrasts. These profiles also can be checked out against the Greenleaf service definition or the three principles outlined earlier. A project or service plan work sheet is another tool for helping discover responses to "Who is to be served by this activity?" and "How are those to be served involved in stating the issue and carrying out the project?" Proposed categories for a model worksheet are: -Summary of situation to be influenced; -Key individuals, organizations, and institutions involved in the situation (the direct providers, technology developers, and policy makers concerned about the dilemma); -Proposed specific service objectives; -Experiences (activities, resources, settings, methods, and the like) to be used in conducting activity; -Criteria for assessing service outcomes; -Specific citizens and/or institutions to be served. Providing services, in situations where "acquirers" speak in other tongues--or speak from cultural perspectives unfamiliar to us--is no easy task. There is a great need for the invention of tools and exercises that help potential servers engage those to be served. The chief tool for most of us will most likely be one we invent for the unique situations we face. Principle three--those who serve are also learners and have significant control over what is expected to be learned--can have many varieties of expression. Since SREB days, I have viewed all the active partners in a service-learning experience as learners. Not only the student, but also the faculty counselor, the agency or community supervisor, and those being served. This expectation strongly suggests that mutuality is an important dimension in learning. In a service-learning activity, the service situation allows ample room for the coordinator to define some learning objectives (e.g., what skills andknowledge does the task require, what skills and knowledge does the student possess, what still needs to be learned for the students to have some of their own learning expectations, for the program sponsoring the activity to have stated learning outcomes, and for the acquirers of services to have learning expectations. The critical task is making sure the services to be rendered are not overwhelmed by the learning tasks. It is my conviction that once an appropriate service activity is formulated and checked out, learning potential becomes apparent. Even in well planned service-learning programs with clearly defined learning objectives, however, significant unplanned learning will occur. Often it will challenge value assumptions and will require thoughtful reflection and sharing with others. A major need in service-learning is for educational researchers to examine the distinctive learning outcomes associated with service delivery. Where does service end and learning begin in a service-learning setting? How is service delivery aided or handicapped by learning expectations? Do the service-learning principles stated here make any difference to the quality of service and learning acquired? Service-learning is called a utopian vision by some and too demanding and impractical by others. Service-learning, as discussed herein, is rooted in the belief that all persons are of unique worth, that all persons have gifts for sharing with others, that persons have the right to understand and act on their own situations, and that our mutual survival on the planet Earth depends on the more able and the less able serving one another. Service-learning as formulated here is a partial corrective to the self-deception many of us service providers practice. We spread around our talents and knowledge because we have it to use and enjoy sharing. We do research incommunities to justify our positions or test a promising methodology. We do group-oriented work because we are trained in group processes. We want clients to come to us. We advocate for the handicapped, poor, young, elderly, and minorities because we want to serve without realizing that they may not be impressed. As providers, our degree of control over services and service systems is excessive in most instances. If we are to be measured by the Greenleaf criterion of those served growing as persons, becoming healthier, wiser, freer, more autonomous, more likely themselves to become servants, then we are called to invent ways to engage those to be served, and that primarily has to be on their turf and terms. My hope for these notes is that they will stimulate dialogue on what service-learning principles say to those using major experiential education styles mentioned earlier. A constant challenge those of us face who provide learning opportunities for people in service settings is to be what Greenleaf calls "servant leaders." "Servant leaders" are people who formulate visions, arrange the structures, and manage the action within the spirit of the service-learning principles. Green-leaf pushes me and, I hope, many others to invent the distinctive ways in which we all can better serve and be served. NOTES 1. Servant Leadership, by Robert K. Greenleaf, Paulist Press, New York, 1977 (330 pages, $10.95). In the 1920's Greenleaf finished college and became a groundman--post-hole digger--for the American Telephone and Telegraph Company. In 1964 he retired as the company's director of management research. Since then he has been active as a management consultant to businesses, educational institutions, and social service groups. His concept of the servant as leader was developed over the years and crystallized when he read Herman Hesse's Journey to the East, a story that shows how a group disintegrates with the disappearance of the servant who had sustained the members with his spirit as well as his menial labor. Greenleaf contends that great leaders are those who are servants first, i.e., who lead because of a desire to serve rather than to gain power or personal gratification. Greenleaf cites historical examples of servant leaders, including Thomas Jefferson, and predicts that in the next 30 years leaders will come from the "dark skinned and the deprived and the alienated of the world" rather than from elite groups who have not learned to listen and respond to the problems of those to be served . In his chapter on "Servant Leadership in Education," Greenleaf returns to his theme of the need for secondary and post-secondary schools to prepare the poor "to return to their roots and become leaders among the disadvantaged." He states that the goal of a college education should be to "prepare students to serve, and be served by the current society." Greenleaf also devotes chapters to "The Institution as Servant," "Trusteesas Servants," "Servant Leadership in Business," "Servant Leadership in Foundations," "Servant Leadership in Churches," "Servant Leaders" (profiles of Abraham Joshua Heschel and Donald John Cowling), "Servant Responsibility in a Bureaucratic Society," and "America and World Leadership." Greenleaf shows a way of putting together two overworked words (service and leadership) into a fresh perspective. In Servant Leadership he offers experiential learning managers a holistic framework for understanding the significance of service-center learning for individuals and institutions. REFLECTIONS ON A TYPOLOGY FOR EXPERIENTIAL EDUCATION Thomas R. Haugsby (This essay originally appeared in `Experiential Education: A Publication of the National Society for Internships in Experiential Education', Vol. 5, No. 3 (May-June 1980) and is reprinted by permission.) I was asked to develop or refine a new or existing typology of experiential education. What follows is an effort to improve the language and modestly expand the typology explained in the existing literature and, later, to suggest another typology based on a different construct. A typology of programs was developed at the 1973 state-of-the-art conference of the Society for Field Experience Education and later in the CAEL handbook, `College Sponsored Experiential Learning' (Duley & Gordon, 1977). With only modest revisions the eleven types of programs are as follows: Cross Cultural - "A student involves him or herself in another culture or sub-culture of his or her own society in a deep and significant way, either as a temporary member of a family, a worker in that society, or a volunteer in a social agency, with the intention, as a participant observer, of learning as much as possible about the culture and his or her own." (Duley & Gordon, pp. v-vi). Cooperative Education - The basic features of the traditional cooperative education model are: 1. There are multiple work and study experiences which are alternating or "parallel" and which are part of the degree or program requirements. 2. Work experiences are related to the educational and career objectives of the student. 3. Students are paid if they are doing work for which regular employees are paid. 4. Life experiences, field trips, recreational experiences, independent surveys, and travel are not appropriate. Pre-Professional Training - Putting into practice the body of knowledge so as to fuse the informational and practical aspects of the profession--the practice of the profession having to do with what knowledge is appropriate and how it may be applied. Such practice is carried out under careful professional supervision most often in the institutional settings organized as the professional practice base, i.e. education-school, law-court/firm, medicine-hospital. The purpose of such programs is as often to familiarize a student with the institutional setting established as the guardians of the profession in society as it is to develop professional practice skill. Institutional Analysis - A student has a temporary period of supervised work that provides opportunities to develop skills, test abilities and career interests, and systematically examine institutional cultures in light of the central theoretical notions in an academic field of study. (Zanderer, 1973,p. l) Service-Learning - Service-learning has been defined (Sigmon, `Synergist', Spring 1979, p. 9) as "the integration of the accomplishment of a task which meets human need with conscious-educational growth." A typical service-learning activity is a 10-15 week full-time experience in which students carry out work tasks in communities while receiving academic credit and/or financial remuneration. The term is now used to describe numerous voluntary action and experiential education programs. Principles of responsible service-learning are that: (1) those being served control the services(s) provided and become better able to serve and be served by their own actions; and (2) those who serve also are learners and have significant control over what is expected to be learned.(Sigmon, 1979) Social-Political Action - Students work under faculty sponsorship for social change via community organizing, political research or action projects, or work with groups seeking a reorganization of societal structures or a response to social problems. Some form of regular and consultative supervision usually occurs with faculty and/or citizens. Personal Growth and Development - A student engages in an experience which is designed to enhance his/her individual growth and development in programs such as Outward Bound, intentional communities, or a mental health program. Although personal growth and development may not be the intended outcomes of every field experience program, research indicates students typically rate this outcome high on the list of achievements (i.e. self-confidence, self-reliance, emerging adult roles). This is true even in programs which do not specifically promote personal growth and development. In programs with this intended outcome the expectation often is for some movement along a developmental continuum. The steps along this line commonly include: 1. Increased sense of oneself as an active choice maker--a cause rather than an effect--with a capacity for empathy and an internalized responsibility for one's own actions. 2. Increased ability to tolerate the paradox and contradiction of life; awareness of differences in process and outcome. 3. Greater awareness of interdependency and the autonomy of others; the ability to conceive of actions governed by broad ideals. (Loevinger, 1976, Chickering, 1969, Heath, 1968) Field Research - A student or group of students engages in a research project involving the application of the methods of inquiry of an academic discipline and its body of knowledge on traditional subjects of that discipline (i.e. geology-rock formations, sociology-family structure). Career Exploration - Occurs in a "supervised placement in a business, government, industry, service organization, or profession in order to provide a useful service, to analyze the career possibilities of that placement, and to develop skills related to employment. The educational institution provides the means of structured reflection, analysis, and self-evaluation. The agency supervisor provides an evaluation of the student's work and career potential." (Duley, Gordon, 1977, p. vii) Academic Discipline/Career Integration - "A student is employed in a business, government, industry, service organization, or profession prior to entry into the educational institution. The faculty members and the educational institution provide the means of structural analysis and evaluation based on the academic discipline involved, integrating theory and practice and heightening the student's awareness and understanding of the world and his/her career in a conscious systematic fashion" (Cummins, 1974). This type of program may include adult degree completion programs, assessment of prior learning, and portfolio programs. Career or Occupational Development - A multiple, often alternating sequence of work experiences which function in concert with classroom instruction to advance a student toward a vocation or career goal. Experiences are sorted and sequenced to move a student through predictable stages of skill development related to a specific career. This is particularly common in vocational or technical programs. The above eleven types of programs, although often overlapping, help to distinguish those program goals pertinent to education based in and sponsored by schools, colleges and universities. Yet we know the history of experiential learning is found in the early guilds through apprenticeships and on-the-job training. In an effort to expand the boundaries of our conception of field experience education, I suggest we consider the following partial list of programs which exist outside the established educational arena, yet share common goals with the approaches listed above. On-the-Job-Training - A mixture of experiential and non- experiential learning, these programs include the intentional instruction and/or guidance given at the work site by experts to learners in context. The provision of this guidance is an expected part of the supervisor's overall responsibility. Examples include a foreman showing and aiding the learner/worker to develop proficiency in a task, professional post-schooling education such as residency programs in hospitals, or military service wherein soldiers are given training, instruction, and guidance "at the workbench." In some cases this education is augmented by seminars, classes or in-service programs. Apprentice Programs - Commonly found in skilled labor organizations which sponsor their own alternation or interaction of classroom and job site, apprentice programs are wholly different from the traditional structure of Cooperative Education except that they occur outside the educational institution. Career Pathing - An employee is routed systematically through a variety of jobs requiring the on-site appreciation/understanding, if not the acquisition of the skills and attitudes needed in various department areas, professions, or wings of an organization. This may be used by the organization to broaden the horizons of narrowly prepared employees for more "managerial" responsibilities in the future, to allow for a fluid work force, to promote individual growth,or to make employees more aware of their contributions to the overall effort. Exchange Program - These encourage the cross-fertilization of employees in different organizations. Examples are a professor who spends a year in private industry or government service to expand the understanding between theory and practice and an executive loaned to a social service or public agency. It may be time to stop. The temptation is to go on to self-sponsored experiential learning such as the homemaker who volunteers in an agency before deciding the merits of going back to school or the self-taught hobbiest who seeks the advice and assistance of others with similar interests. The expansion of this typology to include self-sponsored learning should be debated within the profession. It is my intent to begin that debate with this article. It may be useful to suggest, in conclusion, a typology different from the above--one that focuses more specifically on the kind of learning to be fostered by the experiential education program. This model is a reorganization of the expanded Duley/Gordon model into families according to the learning goal rather than the learning strategy. This typology is not restricted in its point or origin to an educational institution. The learning goals could be divided as follows: 1. To put theory into practice, principally by learning ways to apply, integrate, and/or evaluate the body of knowledge and the method of inquiry of a discipline or field. 2. To acquire knowledge specific to a profession, occupation, social institution, or organization. 3. To acquire and develop specific skills, competencies, and attitudes pertinent to problem-solving, interpersonal interaction, group process, inter-intercultural experience, lifestyle, and/or coping. 4. To develop the competence of learning in a self-directed fashion by using experiential learning theory or methods of inquiry. 5. To develop and use an ethical perspective or stance; to develop moral reasoning or judgment, especially in using the concepts of empathy or role-playing and a concept of justice. 6. To test careers by exploration or confirmation of career choices leading to self-understanding and the use of career assessment skills. 7. To become responsible citizens of the community by understanding the political system and its variations, identifying issues of social concern and developing skills for citizen participation. Chapter 2: MULTIPLE MODELS SERVICE LEARNING AND THE WOMEN'S STUDIES CURRICULUM Carolyn M. Shrewsbury Inclusion of service learning activities in the women's studies curriculum benefits students, the women's studies program, the university and the community. Comprehensive integration of service learning concepts and practice, throughout the Women's Studies curriculum, enhances those benefits, and may well be one key to the growth and survival of strong women's studies programs in the 1980's. Many of the attitudes and activities necessary for such an integrated curriculum already exist in women's studies programs, but need to be made explicit in their relationship to service learning as a means and philosophy of feminist education. The importance of service learning activities in the overall program is demonstrated by reference to the criteria used to assess curricular offerings: scope of the field covered; inclusion of different ideological perspectives; adequacy of academic standards; relevance to career preparation; balance between skills and substantive concerns; attention to both theory and practice; extensiveness of pedagogical alternatives; provision of research opportunities; relationship to the community, broadly defined, and to different feminist communities. In an effectively integrated curriculum, service learning would begin in the Women's Studies program's introductory course, and continue as a coordinated aspect of all curricular offerings. Introductory courses can introduce service learning in various ways. Optional projects, for example, might involve occasional or weekly site visits to potential service learning placements for inquiry, observation or limited participation. Student papers or presentations can be related to the concerns or projects of an agency in which they have an interest. Speakers from campus or community organizations can be invited to address the class. In upper division and advanced courses, instructors can make assignments that would be useful or appropriate for work-related situations, as well as (or rather than) assigning traditional academic research papers. In my feminist scholarship class, e.g., students prepare testimony for a hearing before a state legislative committee or commission. In those courses with a public policy emphasis, the potential for connecting research aspects of public policy to service learning might be explored even further. Those courses could put emphasis on the methodologies of needs assessment and evaluation. Class projects could be developed in cooperation with groups in the community that need assistance with grant applications or have use for particular research. Skills components of women's studies programs, e.g., assertiveness training, career development, management and problem solving, could be more integrated into the total curriculum if their usefulness to students preparing for service-learning placement is clearly articulated. Many institutions offer sponsored experiential learning courses, in which students devote a number of hours per week to a practicum placement or field activity, with additional classroom time provided to examine important issues centering around these work and service experiences. For the student who has already been involved in a variety of action projects through previous course-work, a full-time internship (working hours measured by a full course load) can help synthesize her program of study. For the student without such previous exposure, full-time field work could be an important entre to women's studies. Collective action courses offer another curricular model for providing practical experience. In one such course at Mankota State University, the class worked as a group to research the issue of sexual harassment on campus; students developed a brochure explaining the situation they discovered and outlined possible solutions. Instead of working with or at a particular agency, this class worked to develop public awareness about an existing problem and to suggest means for alleviating that problem. Just as students can work collectively on projects that serve public and community needs not otherwise being met, they can also be involved in meeting needs within the women's studies program itself. By developing orientation sessions for prospective service learning students, they can share their own previous experiences. By serving as part of a peer network, they can provide vital support for students in field placements, particularly those in stressful or conflictual work sites. By acting as leaders of co-seminars and discussion groups they can make possible an activity that small programs might otherwise have to forego. To ensure that placement experiences are meaningful for both the intern and the agency/program, formal mechanisms need to be created by which students can give feedback to a women's studies program, particularly so the curriculum can be strengthened to better prepare students to participate in service learning. One way to do this is to include field supervisors as members of women's studies program advisory committees. An ongoing evaluation plan will also help improve the service learning component of the curriculum and maintain its consistency with overall program philosophy. It will also indicate the efficacy of women's studies to university administrators. Several questions that were part of the original planning for service learning activities might continue to be examined during evaluation processes. For example, what kinds of internships are acceptable? If internships in corporations are appropriate, how should they be created and managed? What consideration should be given to the impact of voluteerism on students, and what ways can be found to ameliorate any negative financial impacts: encouraging agencies eligible for work-study aid to make use of such funds for service learning students; approaching women's groups for special scholarships for service learning activities; urging groups who can pay student interns to see the importance of such support? Are the mechanisms for matching student and placement working for the agency and the student? Are students adequately supported in this placement? Is the evaluation of the student's work fair and does that evaluation enhance the learning program? Besides benefiting students, service learning activities benefit community groups, women's studies, and the institution. Community groups benefit by the greater visibility of the activities that result from the involvement of excited students, by having access to the resources of the university, by the "new blood" and skills students bring with them. Both community and academe benefit from active communication and healthy interchange between academics and practitioners. The women's studies program benefits by giving to the community as well as getting from it. A natural support network for the program that must be respected by university officials is enhanced, one that will often result in new students, especially from previously hard-to-reach groups. These new students and the demands they bring will continue to enrich our programs and force us to continue to challenge the status quo. The institution benefits by having a stronger women's studies program, excited and involved students, connections to the community, and ultimately by the challenge these activities make to other departments on campus. Service learning, like women's studies, is a means of empowering students and contributing to the growth of strong women's communities on and off campus. The survival of prospering women's studies programs in the '80s is important to the development of a more humane society. Given the potential of student enrollment declines in our universities and with the certainty that financial resources will be limited, that survival may well depend upon the ability to develop integrated, innovative programs that meet students' needs, enhance the strengths and prestige of the university within its service community and are potential models for other disciplines. A strong service learning component could be one key for the accomplishment of those tasks. THE WOMEN'S STUDIES PRACTICUM AT LORETTO HEIGHTS: CASE STUDY FOR SMALL COLLEGES AND SMALL PROGRAMS Elizabeth Jameson To be effective, a women's studies service learning program must fit the circumstances of a particular campus. For other programs to assess the applicability of the Loretto Heights model to their situations, it is important to be aware of the controlling factors which shape our Women Studies Practicum: the nature of the college and its student body, the constraints under which the women studies program operates, and the college's location in a large urban area. If these particularities are taken into account, elements of the Loretto Heights practicum may usefully apply to other small programs. College/Student Profile Loretto Heights College is a private coeducational liberal arts college with some 800 undergraduate students. Until 1968 it was a Catholic women's college. Today, many faculty are nuns (who do not live in a convent or wear habits and who have endorsed an impressive statement on feminism and sexism), and the majority of students are Catholic, many from rural parochial school backgrounds. Roughly 80 percent of the faculty and students are female, and many of the younger entering students have never been in a predominantly male environment. These students are likely to have highly romanticized visions of womanhood and of marriage. The largest major is nursing, representing about 40-50 percent of all graduates. Among the nursing students there are two major groups: young, traditionally college age students, and some twenty military nurses a year who are completing B.S. degrees, from whom Women Studies draws a disproportionately high number of students and of minors. In addition, we draw disproportionately from the University Without Walls, an individualized degree program which represents some 20 percent of all graduates, about 80 of whom take LHC courses each year. UWW attracts many "older" women returning to school and a number of feminists in their 20's and 30's. The "average" Loretto Heights student is a woman in her mid-to-late twenties, Caucasian, middle to upper class, interested in the health sciences with a large number of available female role models, and who frequently has had some work experience before enrolling in the practicum. However, there is no really "average" Women Studies student, and our interns tend to be young nursing students with parochial school backgrounds, or older, more independent women with some work experience and a sharper awareness of sexism and of the feminist movement. Interns are either developing awareness of feminist career opportunities and enhancing growing feminist consciousness, or they are relatively new to the worlds of work and of feminism. This lack of experience is somewhat tempered by the clinical component of the nursing program, so that some of the younger interns do have the hospital setting to compare with their placement sites. The internship is part of an 18-credit minor in Women Studies, 2-6 credits of which must be practicum. This requirement is consistent with goals of feminist service learning generally; it is envisioned as a place from which students can relate the academic skills and interests of women studies to the "real world" of women's needs. Like most of the feminist agencies in which we place women studies interns, the women studies program is understaffed and over committed. I am the only professional staff, and my half-time position includes all aspects of running a research center and the Women Studies Minor, teaching a course a term besides the practicum, and non-curricular programming. In my copious free time I administer the internships and meet with and advise practicum students. Fortunately, given limited staff time, we have many fewer minors than women studies students and tend, on the average, to have only 1-3 interns per term. Therefore, we have no ongoing internships (positions which are continuously staffed by a Loretto Heights student) and an independent study format instead of a formal co-seminar. Ironically, given the problems of more geographically isolated schools, we always have more potential placement sites than interns. Denver is a large urban area with a rich variety of feminist agencies and organizations eager to sponsor women studies interns. There is, however, considerable instability of feminist placement sites; our state Commission of Women was just unfunded by the State Legislature, and several safe houses for battered women were recently denied city funding and closed while new funding was arranged. Given this instability and the unpredictable numbers and interests of student interns, I tend to arrange placements each term, using as a placement base my contacts with the Denver area feminist community, and trying always to have a number of contacts going with health-related agencies. Such a process might be more difficult for one who was new to an area or who had fewer resources on which to draw; however, community-based feminist agencies are a good base for developing placements, and persons in one agency will generally refer to other or more appropriate persons and agencies. Our placement process begins when a student comes to me and expresses an interest in the Women Studies Practicum. I talk with the student to assess her/his needs and desires from a placement experience, like specific work skills, exposure to a feminist work setting, exposure to the corporate work world, interest in a particular issue like rape or daycare, etc. I also try to assess the student's previous experience and more intangible qualities like maturity, level of feminist consciousness, need for supervision, etc. It is extremely important to match skills and motives to appropriate placement sites; a student who wanted primarily to develop skills in non-hierarchical management would not necessarily fit in well at the local Women's Bank, for instance. I then suggest several placement alternatives which might fit the student's needs and describe what I know of the agency and the work the student might be doing there. My guidelines for appropriate placements are: the supervisor must be a self-identified feminist, s/he must be willing to engage in ongoing contracting and supervision and must be willing to act as a teacher, and the work for the intern must be "real" work, not "busy work" which could be learned in any office setting. The student selects a placement or placements to explore, and contacts the work supervisor to discuss the matter. When a student and a supervisor have agreed to the internship, they negotiate a contract, which may be renegotiated, regarding the student's learning goals, the work to be done, the number of hours and work time committed per week, the nature and frequency of supervision, the criteria for evaluating the intern, and other matters appropriate to the student's relationship to the placement site. The student then contracts with me, the Practicum Instructor, regarding her more analytic and personal learning goals, reading and written assignments, a regular meeting time, and evaluation criteria. Essentially we structure an independent study which is the rough equivalent of the co-seminar in a larger program. For each credit, the student must work the equivalent of 2.5 hours a week for a 16-week term, or perform roughly 40 hours or work per credit. In addition, s/he keeps a journal or other record of the work experience, does some related reading and short written assignments analyzing the placement experience, and writes a final evaluation of the internship, taking into account the goals outlined in the original contracts with the instructor and the work supervisor. I assign the final grade, after consulting with the placement supervisor and the student. What sorts of jobs have LHC Women Studies interns held? The majority have been health- or service-related, including rape counseling, and doing a survey of resources for battered women in the area. (In this instance, I was the placement supervisor and the directory produced is used by our women's center.) One student who had trained in sexuality counseling ran a sexuality workshop for her practicum, supervised by a local feminist therapist. Other internship possibilities have included doing research on day care available at Colorado work sites for the state Commission on Women, interning as a legislative lobbyist for NOW, and working as a legislative intern for a feminist State Senator. In addition, there are potential placements at non-feminist worksites, if the student is placed with a feminist supervisor. These may be one solution for programs with fewer potential feminist placement sites. For instance, a business major will do her practicum in the near future with a feminist who is a Public Relations Director for Mountain Bell Telephone Company. The supervisor helped to form a group called Women in Management at Mountain Bell, and I fantasize that the student will learn something about establishing feminist support networks in the corporate world, as well as learn about public relations. Considerable responsibility falls on the independent study component of the practicum to encourage feminist learning from the work experience. Students are encouraged to see their internships in relation to others' by using as a frame of reference their previous work experiences. Although there is a disadvantage to students in the lack of exchange with other interns, there is some advantage in the individualized approach of the small program: I can create assignments to fit the student's particular needs. Who Makes the Coffee? Strategies for Encouraging Feminist Learning In Programs Without Co-Seminars A small service learning program which runs essentially as an independent study cannot provide the same rich exchange of experience which students in larger programs may gain through co-seminars, and it can become an imaginative exercise to encourage each student's feminist learning throughout her internship. This possibility of meeting each individual student where s/he is and moving from that place can also provide a nourishing learning situation; the strategies for learning designed to complement a placement are limitless, and some exercises might be useful in co-seminars as well. The exact knowledge, skills, and attitudes I try to encourage vary with each student, depending on her level of development in job skills, interpersonal skills, analytic skills, and feminist consciousness. Until a student has, for example, recognized the existence of subtle and overt job discrimination, it is relatively meaningless to encourage her to develop skills to combat sexism at the worksite. Until she is aware of differences in hierarchically and non-hierarchically structured offices, it doesn't mean much to suggest she grapple with the difficulties and advantages of each structure. I have sponsored interns who did not particularly need individually designed exercises to encourage their learning, but who were ready to devote their major energy to exploring a career or issue. With these students, I generally assign related reading and ask for a journal and a reflective paper for processing the experience. But for other students, newer to the worlds of work and of feminism, I have tried to devise exercises to enhance feminist awareness through the internship. I realize that I rely heavily on my own experience, asking myself how I became aware of the existence of sexism, how that manifested itself in my early job experiences, what models I had of feminist coping strategies, etc. My academic background as a cultural historian prompts some of the exercises, both in terms of what I ask students to observe, and in my concept of student as participant/observer at the placement site. I find it useful to employ a non-feminist work setting as a frame of reference; if the student is interning at a feminist agency, I rely on past work experiences in more traditional settings, or on interviews which the student conducts with women working in traditional settings, to provide this contrast. If the intern works at a traditional work situation (always, in my program, with a feminist supervisor), then the task is, broadly, to enhance consciousness of sex-typed roles and behaviors, and to increase awareness of survival strategies for women in "the regular work world." If the work site is a feminist agency, then the student may analyze how "feminist" the work structure is, how women's roles differ in feminist and in traditional settings, how feminist goals, processes, and interpersonal contacts contrast with those of the dominant business world. The following suggestions are some exercises I have used in the independent study component of a women studies internship; each person can probably devise countless others that fit a personal teaching style and individual student needs. 1. Analyze the decision making and work structure of the office. Who sets goals, makes policy? Who implements policy? What distinguishes persons who do the "scut" work from persons in policy-making positions (race, gender, age, volunteer status, etc.)? 2. In agencies trying to develop non-hierarchical structures, how is policy made? How are responsibilities determined? What are the long- and short-term hassles and benefits of consensual decision making, in terms of both making and implementing policy? 3. Observe informal decision-making patterns and interactions, to distinguish sexist, classist, agist, and racist behavior. Who talks with whom? About what? How often? What names do various personnel call one another by? (Is it Janey and Mr. Smith?) Who stands in whose presence? Are there language or touch patterns which reinforce hierarchy at the worksite? For instance, since many Loretto Heights students are student nurses, I ask them to use hospital etiquette as a reference (and to compare the roles of nurses in traditional hospitals with, say, a rape counseling situation). Students generally observe that doctors initiate touch with nurses, but not vice versa, and that doctors talk medical slang ("cutting") until nurses join them, and then they switch to technical language ("Appendectomy"). 4. Interview other workers at your placement about their duties, compensations, how they cope with childcare and housework responsibilities, what place work has in their lives, etc. (Do all co-workers consider themselves responsible for household and family duties? Who does their laundry, gets dinner, etc.?) 5. Talk with co-workers about why they work and what satisfaction they derive from it. How does the meaning of work differ for you (the intern), for women, and for men in traditional and in feminist work-sites? 6. Analyze the job classifications and, if possible, the pay scale for the occupations at your agency. Analyze jobs by job title, duties, and pay, and by who performs them. Question: How is an executive secretary different from an administrative assistant? Answer: She does everything he does for half the pay and makes the coffee besides. 7. Have lunch with the managers and with the secretaries. How long does each group take for lunch? Where do they go? How much, on the average, do they spend for lunch? If there is an employees' lunch-room, who eats there? What does each group talk about? How do members of the group relate to one another? (This exercise could be translated to joining other employees in off-work activities, of finding out what they do after work or on weekends, comparing by job, marital status, parental status, etc.) 8. If the supervisor is a feminist in a traditional worksite, compare her supervisory style with other persons in similar positions. Does her secretary have a different feeling/working relationship than other secretaries have with their bosses? Who makes the coffee in the office? The possibilities are infinite and can draw on other resources. For instance, a quick look at the U.S. Department of Labor Women's Bureau publication, "Handbook on Women Workers", provides an excellent introduction to jobs aggregation, pay discrimination, etc., and may be a good starting point before asking a student to analyze the conditions at her placement. Or a business student might be encouraged to read _Games_Mother_Never_Taught_You_ and then to consider the adequacy of male metaphors (football, the military) for her in relating to the corporate world, and to develop new metaphors to suit her situation. When the student starts devising her own exercises and analytic frame-works, it is a good sign that the service learning experience has effectively heightened her awareness of choices and implications she will continue to face as a working woman. Conclusion The Loretto Heights Practicum appears to accomplish most for those who have had some prior work experience and for the more mature, self-motivated student. The discoveries of younger, previously sheltered students are often more basic (jobs are sex-segregated) and more emotionally wrenching (identification with rape victims). The basic advantage of a small program is that individualized programming can take these differences into account. The basic disadvantage is that younger students, especially, have no exchange with others dealing with a variety of feminist issues. The interns are very much dependent on my quirks, community contacts, and on the limits of my time, energy and creativity. The practicum clearly impacts both the students and the larger feminist community. Students gain knowledge of ways to develop and apply skills in feminist contexts, and begin to imagine ways to create new careers for themselves. Most of the placements are in agencies, like Safe Houses, which did not exist ten years ago, and which were created out of women's needs and energies. This is a useful realization for career-panicked students. The student who ran a sexuality workshop is now a counselor in an abortion clinic and she runs some women's sexuality groups. So one impact of the internship is the proliferation of feminist services in the long run. For the agencies, the benefits are broader than receiving work assistance; less tangibly, exposure to the concerns of a variety of students, including those just encountering feminist awareness, is an important input for the agency staff. The placements provide a variety of learning possibilities, from basic skills (communication, budgeting, advertising, etc.), to an introduction to differences between feminist and sexist work settings, to philosophies of feminist organization and communication. Students may encounter new strategies for developing their own support networks, develop new skills (rape counseling) and begin to imagine ways to use skills for other women. Besides educating students regarding feminist issues like battering and credit and daycare, our biggest success appears to be helping returning students transfer skills to the workworld and increasing their self-confidence, introducing students to feminist agencies and networks, and helping women who have worked primarily in the health fields imagine new ways to use these skills within a women's community. At Loretto Heights, I think our largest long-term impact for women will be in the fields of nursing and the healing arts. Students begin to question the medical hierarchy and to find ways to transform it or to use skills differently within it. For instance, one military nurse who graduated with a Women Studies minor has developed a program for raped and battered women at her current military base. As one colleague recently told me, "Your practicum makes you into a Jenny Appleseed for the military." It is not a goal I would have imagined for myself or for the program, but it may be a significant achievement. INTEGRATING THEORY AND PRACTICE IN A SERVICE LEARNING CO-SEMINAR Nancy Schniedewind The ability to apply feminist theory to personal and social change efforts, and in turn to use that practical experience to evaluate and recreate theory, is an important process goal for women's studies students. A field-work course is an excellent context for this learning to take place. "Fieldwork in Women's Studies," an upper division, three credit course,is required for women's studies majors, taken toward the end of their program of study. This course, which usually enrolls from 6 to 8 students each semester, is also open to other upper-division students who have had two women's studies courses. Students work in a field placement for a minimum of six hours a week and must also participate in a two hour seminar once every three weeks. There are many ways to define service learning in women's studies. At New Paltz, fieldwork is a three to six credit experience that is one part of a student's full course load and is completed at a site in commuting distance from campus. An internship is a 15-18 credit experience that is, itself, a student's full course load, and is often taken in another geographical area; this latter experience is more intensive, and we recommend it for students who have already taken fieldwork. My focus in this paper is on what we define as fieldwork, which necessitates that students come together as a group for a seminar every three weeks. The overriding intent of "Fieldwork in Women's Studies" is to provide students an opportunity to learn to integrate feminist theory and practice, encouraging them to see their own potential to foster change. The specific goals of the course are for students to: - Gain practical experience and skills by working in feminist organizations and projects - Make a positive contribution to women's program or activity in the community - Analyze various approaches for creating personal and social change - Develop skills for integrating theoretical knowledge and practical experience to promote feminist goals A series of "relevant questions" that reflect these goals are posed on the syllabus at the beginning of the course. These provide a framework for thinking, discussion, and journal entries as we proceed through the course. They include: - What are our goals for the feminist movement? - How do various projects we work with promote these, or other, goals? - What are the approaches to change that women have and do utilize? On what assumptions are these based? - How can theory instruct practice in the feminist movement? In the organizations we work with? In our lives? - How do issues of class and race affect our theory and action strategies? - How is personal change related to social change? How can the two be synthesized most effectively? - How can we overcome feelings of helplessness and work effectively and cooperatively for change? Our focus on creating personal and social change through the fieldwork experience has implications for the choice of placement. It has been argued that women's studies students can do fieldwork in any setting--from a major corporation to a fast food shop--and learn to apply a feminist perspective to their experience. To a degree, that is true. Nevertheless, we have a choice about the total experience we-want our students to have. If our goals are to use fieldwork to instruct students in the theory and practice of catalyzing change for women, I believe it is important to place students in organizations with similar goals--to the extent it is possible in a given community--so that way the process and content of what we are teaching is consistent with their work setting, and their learning is therefore more powerful and integrated. Our students have, and will have, many chances--for better or worse!- -to work within institutions whose goals are to serve the status quo. This is one opportunity for them to experience an alternative, as part of an organization that advocates other values and visions. Experiential knowledge of an alternative enables students to know that such a reality is possible again for them in the future. In addition, students are resources as well as learners. We must ask ourselves where we want to direct our woman power and that of our students. At New Paltz we have decided that it is into those feminist and progressive organizations struggling for social change. Usually these are organizations that have meager resources, money, and personnel. In these settings students' energy can make a significant difference to the group's effectiveness, and women's studies continues to empower the women's movement that spawned it. The theory/practice focus in the fieldwork course also has implications for the nature of the co-seminar. Rather than teach skills, the seminar is the arena in which we collectively attempt to apply issues raised in the readings to field experiences. Since most of the upper division students at New Paltz who take this course have had solid skills, we have not faced the need for a skills component. It is, however, very important that students have job-related competencies before beginning a placement. These might include: writing, speaking, public communication, interviewing, data gathering, assertiveness with supervisor, role-taking ability, and group skills. Should it be necessary to teach these competencies, I'd propose a one credit modular course, "Introduction to Fieldwork in Women's Studies," to meet the need. Such a short-term, intensive course would prepare students for their fieldwork and enable the co-seminar to focus more directly on analysis. As students wish or need to, they see me independently concerning their particular placement. I meet with the entire group of field work students six times during the semester for two hours. The requirements for the course include: (1) completion of all assigned readings, (2) a detailed journal documenting learning from their fieldwork and analysis of their reading; and (3) a final paper describing learnings regarding the synthesis of theory and practice to foster change. Their final grade is based on their self evaluation, their supervisor's evaluation, and the quality of these assignments. Through the course it is my aim that students become active participants in a fieldwork experience, reflect upon it, generalize about it, and apply the generalizations to the experience to better understand it and/or change it. The seminar provides the forum for reflection, conceptualization, and discussion of application. In the first co-seminar session, students get acquainted, describe their fieldwork placement to each other, and discuss their expectations for the semester. I share my expectations and delineate the requirements for the course. We begin all subsequent sessions with time for each student to share an experience, excitement or a problem from her fieldwork situation. Students learn more about others' projects, and get support or problem solving strategies, as needed; I can identify any students having difficulties, and arrange time for a follow-up conference. While we spend no more than thirty minutes on this process, it is valuable for sharing brainstorming solutions to common--or not-so-common!--problems, renewing energy, and validating the personal change students experience. Sessions two and three, titled "Feminist Frameworks," are devoted to analysis of various theoretical perspectives from which to view woman's oppression and strategies for change. Students read selections from "Feminist Frame-works: Alternative Theoretical Accounts of the Relations between Women and Men" by Alison Jagger and Paula Struhl, and `Anarchism: The Feminist Connection' by Peggy Kornegger in "Reinventing Anarchy", edited by Howard and Carol Ehrlich. We discuss liberal, Marxist, radical feminist, socialist feminist, and anarchist-feminist theories. Concurrently, students are making observations in their field settings and recording responses to these questions in their journals: - What are the explicit and implicit goals of the organization or project you work with? - How do their practices support or differ from their goals? - From what framework--or combination thereof--is your organization working? How do you know? - What feminist framework(s) do you feel most reflects your beliefs? In the seminar, we discuss not only the theoretical perspectives, but also the way in which students applied these frameworks to the reality of their fieldwork. We compare and contrast the modus operandi and values of various groups. Students compare their perspectives with each other, and to the organizations represented. It is important to note that in talking about feminist frameworks in relationship to field placements, I encourage a norm of acceptance for every organization involved. We consistently affirm the valuable work all do, and analyze practice from different points of view. Sometimes these critiques are brought back to students' placements to impact practice; students are encouraged to share issues they're dealing with in the seminar with persons in their placement. About one third of the students work with a campus-based organization, like the birth control clinic, so there are often opportunities for critical suggestions to be discussed and implemented because students feel more power to foster change in groups organized by peers. At all times, however, I expect support and respect for all organizations. Session four is titled "Theory in Action." Students read: "Toward a Political Morality" by Barbara Ehrenreich; "The Reform Tool Kit" by Charlotte Bunch; and "The Women of Williamsburg" by Carol Brightman. We discuss how theory is put to work in feminist projects. The focus for students' observations and journal entries is Charlotte Bunch's discussion of non-reformist reforms. Bunch describes a reform as any change that alters the condition of life in a particular area, noting it can be conservative or revolutionary. She defines reformism as a particular ideological position--basically liberalism--and puts forth five criteria for distinguishing a non-reformist reform. Students are asked to examine their organizations with these criteria in mind. In the seminar we discuss not only the content of these articles, but the application of Bunch's thinking. We formulate specific ways organizations could change, should they want to, to be more in tune with those criteria. These questions enable students to carefully examine their organizations, their impact and outcomes, and the ways they're part of, or a challenge to, the status quo. A student who worked in a birth control clinic made the following journal entry, which I quote with her permission. The birth control clinic is being quite effective at what its goals are. I would hope that those who work for it, as well as other reform type organizations, will not merely stop at them and feel they have created the solutions. What I've learned from working for this type of agency is that to stop and "settle" for it is in a sense defeating a purpose of fighting for social change. This is not to say that those who work there are not making enormous contributions to society and women. I feel now I owe it to women and myself to struggle for social change that will hopefully some day eliminate the need for reform organizations to begin with--i.e., rape crisis centers and so on. I want to change the society that killed women who were used as guinea pigs to test the pill and the IUD, I want to change the society that doesn't bother to do any further research for more humane methods of birth control and expects women to be thankful for what methods they've got... This student, a superb practitioner in the birth control clinic, could affirm the significance of her project's work, and at the same time increase her critical consciousness in light of the theoretical issues raised. The fifth session of the seminar focuses on class issues. Students read "Class and Feminism" by Charlotte Bunch et al. They observe and record issues about class as they relate to themselves and to their placement. - What is the class background of the people you work with? The people your project serves/empowers? - What class values are reflected in the goals and procedures of the group? - How does your class background affect the way you view yourself, women's oppression and strategies for social change? Given the way we're taught not to discuss class difference, this session tends to be a very powerful learning experience. Students have sometimes returned to their fieldwork settings to raise basic issues generated in this session. In the final session, "Social Equality: Visions, Goals and Strategies," we discuss Marge Piercy's "Woman on the Edge of Time". Students respond to these questions in their journals. - Describe the reality and the vision that Piercy presents. - Compare that to the reality of our society and the vision of your field placement. - Compare Piercy's vision and yours. This class, too, is powerful, because of the clarity and strength of Piercy's writing. Students talk of their visions, and we share what we've learned about strategies for social change. At this session a final paper is due in which students detail what they've learned from integrating theory and practice with an emphasis on fostering personal and social change. Since these themes are fresh in their thinking, discussion is often rich. Throughout the semester students have: been part of a feminist action project; reflected upon their experience in journals and seminars; used writings of feminists as the basis for further conceptualization; applied these theoretical views to their field experience; suggested new action for themselves and their organizations based on that process. By participating in a social change effort, students change as individuals. They learn new competencies, acknowledge skills they already had, and gain a sense of personal power by working in a collective effort toward feminist goals. The seminar reinforces this personal change with support and constructive criticism: sharing their personal development in a group setting, students feel their individual and collective empowerment more deeply. A student in my course made the following summary statement, which I quote with her permission. I really must say that I've learned a great deal from this entire experience. I feel stronger about my own abilities now that I've proven to myself that I can do it. Therefore,I feel now I'm ready for a change...l finally realize that sitting back and merely intellectualizing about oppression in society is not enough and that only through action will things change. Now I'm willing and ready to devote my energies to doing that. I've gained through the course the courage as well as the realization to admit this, and to act upon it. In reflecting on this model for a fieldwork course and seminar, I see several developments that could reinforce its goals. In the context of the course as described, I intend to have students work in pairs or small groups in as many organizations as possible. While this may cut down on the number of feminist projects we connect with in a given semester, it will provide students a built-in support group in which to discuss issues raised by the experience: Further, it will give them a cooperative experience as activists and reinforce the idea that it takes people working together to effect change. A second semester course, "Fieldwork in Women's Studies II" could also be developed, to enable students to apply their learning from the basic course more consistently and cooperatively. Students would work together as a group to choose a receptive organization to work with, or to define a problem affecting women in the community. They would develop a theoretical framework for addressing a problem in the context of that framework. For example, if part of their working theory involved the negative influence of class bias and racism on women's liberation, the group might work with the local health care center to survey the effectiveness of their services for low-income and minority women. If they found areas for improvement, the group could cooperate with the health center to develop strategies to try meet those needs. In this second course they would even be more actively formulating theory and applying it in praxis. The process of the working group itself would be an equally important area for learning. During the Women's Studies Service Learning Institute, Marti Bombyk, another participant, made a distinction between feminist consciousness and conscience: the former an awareness of women's oppression which can then be limited to the quest for personal liberation, the latter the combination of consciousness with action, which seeks to empower women as a group. Surely a valid goal for service learning in women's studies is the movement of feminist consciousness toward conscience. It is my hope that this description of a fieldwork course with a co-seminar that encourages dialectical process has been helpful, and will catalyze us all to renewed consciousness and conscience. REFERENCES Brightman, Carol. "Women of Williamsburg," Working Papers for a New Society, Jan./Feb., 1978. Bunch, Charlotte. "The Reform Tool Kit," Guest: A Feminist Quarterly, Vol. 1, 1974. (For a list of Bunch's five criteria for reform, see p. in this volume.) Bunch, Charlotte, et al., "Class and Feminism". Baltimore: Diana Press, 1974. Ehrenreich, Barbara. "Toward a Political Morality," Liberation Magazine, July/August, 1977. Ehrlich, Howard, and Ehrlich, Carol, eds. Reinventing Anarchy. London and Boston: Routledge, Kegan, Paul, 1979. Jagger, Alison, and Struhl, Paula. Feminist Frameworks: "Alternative Theoretical Accounts of the Relation between Women and Men". New York: McGraw Hill, 1978. Piercy, Marge. "Woman on the Edge of Time". Greenwich, Conn.: Fawcett Books, 1976. BRIDGING THEORY AND THE PRACTICUM: A COURSE IN WOMEN'S STUDIES Melanie Kaye (This essay was originally delivered as a talk to the annual convention of the MLA in December 1977. It appeared in the "Women's Studies Newsletter", Summer 1978, Vol. VI, No. 3, as "Feminist Theory and Practice," and is reprinted by permission of The Feminist Press.) I want to talk about why we should include training in feminist theory and practice in women's studies programs; and to describe the sequence of courses designed at Portland State University to provide this training, in particular the segment I teach called Feminist Theory and Practice. Let me begin by looking back to the origins of women's studies, in the context of a burgeoning movement. Women's studies programs came into being because of women's power to demand these programs. Because women did demand these programs. Because in the turmoil of the sixties and early seventies, campus administrators were under pressure to make concessions, pressure which we had helped to create and which we were astute enough to increase in various ways, from writing polite letters to sitting in. Because even our polite letters were backed by the existence of an activist movement and the possibility of more militant action. The existence of women's studies thus testifies to women's power. This fact suggests one reason why we should provide women with political training; like all sound political reasoning, it is at least partly selfish. In the current economic crunch, women's studies programs are in danger. If we don't help women to articulate collective power, learn how and where to act, we will not have women's power supporting women's studies. Feminist activity made women's studies possible. Women's studies must in turn help make feminist activity possible, if we are to survive as women's studies teachers, or as teachers, for that matter (some of us, like myself, have already been axed), or even as women. But granted that political training is necessary, why should women's studies provide it? Because inside and outside the universities and colleges, opportunities for acquiring political skills are hard to come by. Let me use my personal history, for I think my experience fairly common. I learned about feminism and the need for an autonomous women's movement through my participation, in other movements, especially the civil rights and antiwar movements. Like many women with this background, I was a student in the late sixties and early seventies, and my first feminist work was directed toward the university. I was part of the women's caucus (in comparative literature at the University of California/Berkeley) that demanded a class and the choice of instructor; and I was blessed with teaching that first class, digging out books from my friends' collections, devouring the first issues of "Female Studies" for titles. Looking back, I am overwhelmed by the naivete and starvation of those early efforts. I actually typed up a list for my class called "Books by Women" that was less than a page long. All of this work--from the struggle to get the class, to the creation of curriculum, to the trial-and-error invention of new classroom structures--included political training. In that first class, politics was clearly part of the subject, and would have been whether I wanted it there or not. Many of the students also considered themselves part of the women's movement. Literature and politics clasped hands as women defined the parameters of common experience; or clashed noisily as women argued their preference for Nin over Lessing, or Lessing over Nin. Some wanted less politics, some wanted more; but everyone knew that what we were doing was in fact political, slightly outside the law, and precious. The explosive growth that was happening to so many of us was happening in the context of a larger whole -a vital, ornery women's liberation movement. Many of us were reading passionately on our own time and in our nonacademic women's groups the feminist theoretical writings which were just then appearing and which, along with actual events, were urging us to new edges, new possibilities. Looking for the Women's Movement Now we see a different picture. The women's movement is fragmented and under attack, still vital in some places (Portland being one), but thriving in particular projects and counter institutions: coffee houses, health clinics, rape hotlines, bookstores -and women's studies programs. These projects tend to be highly specific and task-oriented, rather than broadly political. Besides, having been around for a while, they have tended to solidify into a particular way of functioning, especially since the essential task of maintaining them usually requires all available energy. They are often not open to absorbing the energy of new women (which, barring unusual coincidence, is bound to be different energy). Moreover, the movement now has a history almost ten years long and a body of theory. One problem the women's movement, like the Left, has reeled under is our difficulty in learning from what has happened before us, even a few years before us. Some knowledge of the history and existing traditions of feminism should at least make it possible for us to avoid rehashing the same issues, and to ground ourselves in a common context. In addition, many women now coming to college have never experienced how movements can win victories. Even the women's studies classes we meet them in are givens. Women students-- especially at an urban working-class public institution like Portland State--bring a wealth of experience with them; and I am sure all schools have felt the impact of returning women students. But while consciousness of feminist issues has spread widely, a sense of possible break-through, of modes of resistance and activity, has not. "What can I do?" people say. Everything in this society, from the threat of rape to having social security numbers to unemployment to being put on hold, seems designed to make us feel helpless; or, at best, we seek individual solutions. In a time when there are not many places to learn how to think and act politically, the need for women's studies to provide such training becomes all the more pressing, especially since in many towns and cities, women's studies is the most visible aspect of feminist activity. Last spring about half the thirty women who enrolled in my course on Feminist Theory and Practice were nonstudents. They weren't looking for credits; they were looking for the women's movement. A Core Curriculum At Portland State, an incremental unit has been developed to provide training in feminist theory and practice, a core curriculum which women's studies minors are urged to take whether their field of concentration is biology or literature, structural engineering or law. The curriculum begins with an introduction to women's studies, oriented toward issues and designed to acquaint women with the existing feminist activities and institutions in Portland. The second course is an introduction to feminist theory, which covers ovular second wave texts in such a way that women can not only absorb the tradition(s), but also assess, evaluate, and synthesize what seems useful and accurate. The third course on theory and practice was invented to bridge the gap between the theory course and the last course in the sequence, which is practicum-fieldwork in a feminist institution or on a project for women's use. Some favorite examples of practicum work include: creating and maintaining a women's gallery; organizing a series of women's readings in the gallery (both of which projects have the double function of providing women makers with space to be seen and heard, and giving women the chance to see and hear women's work - and not incidentally support to become makers themselves); lobbying in the Oregon State Legislature for legislation which forces the police to arrest men who beat women, and which makes marital rape a crime; writing a book on climbing for women and teaching a group of women to climb; as well as working in such places at the women's bookstore, women's resource center, or shelter for battered women, The Germ of the Course I'll focus now on the course I was asked to teach, since it's especially odd. It was offered through the Department of Philosophy, but in truth it seems to me outside academic categories, nondisciplinary. In the sixties it would have been called "Now That We Know What We Think, How Do We Figure Out What To Do?" This practical emphasis separates it from most university disciplines. And, infact, a problem I had with this course is that there are almost no appropriate readings for it, a situation reminiscent of those early days I was talking about. What we need to read hasn't been written yet. On the other hand, also reminiscent, I was forced to be inventive. The Women's Studies Program asked me to design a course that would connect theory with practice. I was first delighted, then stumped. I knew what I did not want. I knew I did not want to spend time and blood on sterile questions like, "Are men the enemy? Are lesbians the vanguard? Can change happen within the system? Is armed revolution essential?- Possible? What is the primary contradiction?" etc. These questions have helped tear our movement to pieces, yet no one knows the answers - because at this point in our history, they're unanswerable. There are some theoretical points we cannot move beyond because we don't have enough practice yet to assess and understand the multifaceted and rapidly changing reality we confront in the late seventies. Questions that seem more useful--like "What do we need? How can we get it? What do we want? How can we get it?"--these questions can be answered, if at all, through problem-solving, trial and error: that is to say, through practice. But how could I teach that? Either I was the wrong person for the course (a possibility I considered) or I had something to offer besides books and the already named questions. One morning I was circling around my brain trying to think up a course outline, and I got hungry. I took out a loaf of bread and noticed that the label said, "No preservatives added." This was not hippie 47,000-grain bread, this was commercial supermarket bread. Now I am 32 years old, and I remember that not very long ago "No preservatives added" would not have been considered an asset. What pressures forced Northridge Bread to leave out preservatives? And how interesting it was that Northridge Bread had turned the ecology movement into a selling point. Where upon I realized that I had the germ--at least a germ--of the course. So I constructed the course out of my thinking process, what I am aware of in the world, trying to analyze how I problem-solve, how I assess situations and figure out how to act and what is possible. I defined the goal of the class as providing necessary skills to attack the institution of helplessness. I also wanted the course to arm women against some of the destructive phenomena I, along with many women, had experienced working in the movement: guilt-tripping, trashing, avoidance of conflict, alienation, ignoring differences or exaggerating them. Here are some things we did. I began on the first day by asking women to note one way in which they felt different from everyone else in the room, and to share that perceived difference. The point was to learn our commonality: older, younger, mother, lesbian, working-class, rural, married; and where the difference was genuine--in the case of the one Asian woman, or the one instructor and assumed power-center (me)--that difference got articulated straight off. I asked women to write their vision of an ideal future - if everything were possible. The point was to tap our desires, to think as big as possible, to loose the visionary component which inspires and encourages political activity.I asked women to make a list--this class was largely composed of lists--of five things (books, people, ideas, movies, whatever) they thought of as pseudo-feminist, and to justify their choices. Based on these lists we tried to reach a consensus on what we meant by "feminist." The next and probably most crucial step in the course, according to student evaluations, was to appropriate the dialectical method. I chose to include this component because for me learning to think dialectically was a slow but dramatic break through confusion. After a presentation on dialectics from a woman familiar with Hegel and Marx, the assignment was for each student to analyze dialectically a problem she was dealing with right at that moment. We went over the problems in class, contradiction by contradiction: problems like how much to let kids watch TV, men not sharing in housework, raising boy children to be strong and non-oppressive to women; many indecisions about living situations, jobs, and school. Interestingly, several women resolved their selected problem through this exercise. Problems about immediate choices were particularly amenable to this approach. With others the blocks to solution became apparent: as in how to raise boy children. The point was not to work magic, an instant cure, but to teach an approach that could incorporate the flux and crash of phenomena, a way of seeing that was not static; moral, artificially compartmentalized or polarized, but rather could apprehend conflicting aspects as part of the same whole.It was a way of figuring out what we can and cannot solve, and at what level-- internal, familial, communal, societal, global--solution is possible. We talked about consciousness, about what had made changes in our consciousness possible, about the relationship between changing consciousness and a changing world, how they make each other possible or not, how we make them both possible and how they have made/continue to make us. We dealt with the muddy hole into which entire movements have fallen of explaining behavior that doesn't make sense to movement participants as "coming from false consciousness." Thus the Old Left has explained the racism that keeps white workers from uniting with their Black working-class brothers (sic) without asking what concrete privileges whites obtain, regardless of class, from the institution of racism (without, for that matter, questioning whether the white working class is any more racist than the white middle class). In the women's movement, "false consciousness" mostly comes dressed as "role conditioning." We've all read about it in `Ms.', not to mention a fair amount of what is being written under the rubric of feminist scholarship. Thus women's consumption habits--or makeup, or clothing which seems degrading to the "liberated" woman with her "true" consciousness (i.e. the woman who has dispelled her conditioning), or female opposition to the ERA--get written off. (This idea has been with me for years, but I think its source was Ellen Willis' article on "Women and Consumerism," one of the best examples of the Redstockings' analysis. The fullest critique of the "role conditioning" approach can be found in "Feminist Revolution" by the Redstockings women, now available from Random House for (alas) $6.00.) What gets left out of this analysis is the real pleasure we get from exercising our limited power to choose among products; the fact that women who dress to appeal to men may be surviving rather than backward; or that women feel sensibly threatened by the idea of losing some of the scanty protection we have. Changes You Have Seen, Changes You Want to Make We made more lists. Fifty changes you have seen in your own lifetime (a spinoff from Northridge Bread). Fifty, a large number, so that no one would spend time puzzling over which changes were most important: any fifty. The point here was to sensitize ourselves to the astonishing flux we live through and with, in order to counter our sense of immutability, and especially our sense that social movements do not, for example, help stop wars in Viet Nam, or force bakeries to put out a "health" line. We focused on a few changes. How did they come about? What has happened/could have happened/could still happen from them? Another list, this time of changes you want to make in your life: any ten. Divide into changes you can make by yourself; changes you can make with one other-friend, lover, child, therapist; changes you need a group for. Pick one change that requires a group. Define the group. Make a plan. List the pre-requisites for each step of the plan. What keeps you from making the change? Some other topics, briefly: some dealt with, some touched on, some passed over because as usual there was not enough time: feelings and experiences about working in groups, masses, individualism vs. individuality; rigid rules of conduct, guilt vs. responsibility; contemporary theories of social change; spotting political assumptions; survival - your work and its relationship to your politics, where you can work for change in your present or future job; process vs. product; self-activity (the politics of fun). So much for the academic quarter. During the assignment on "changes you want," every woman in the class had listed "stopping rape," a striking commonality. A smaller core of women from the class has continued to meet as an action group--again reminiscent of early women's studies--and this fall helped plan a wonderful anti-rape event, the Women's Night Watch, in which two hundred women marched in the rain to reclaim the night. The Night Watch was an energy boost, the effects of which are still being felt. Activity generates awareness generates more activity. Night Watch helped create a climate of activism about violence against women. And Night Watch happened in part because of the focus provided by this class. I don't take credit for this. The women in the class were remarkable -although one suspects that most women are remarkable when they get the chance to be. And clearly fighting rape and other violence against women is an idea whose time has come. Nor am I offering a six-month plan to revitalize the movement. I simply mean to suggest the possibilities of encouraging women to think seriously about change as something we can make, and to experiment with various forms of group activity. Now you may be wondering what this has to do with you. My experience with teaching and with political organizing tells me that these are basically similar activities. The task: to create a situation in which people can mobilize their own energy, in which people use their experience and the materials on hand to make something new. The function: to clarify, offer options, supply information. The goal: to make oneself ultimately unnecessary to the group. The approach: highly empirical, allowing ourselves and our students to risk failure. I know women who teach women's studies who have said to me, "But I know something about literature (or psychology, or history). I don't know enough about politics." It is true that in the women's communities of many towns and cities there are competent women who could teach political theory and practice on a wage-section basis (which is how I teach). But I also want to suggest that women who have been part of the struggle for and development of women's studies, who have experimented with different kinds of classroom structures, studied the process of group dynamics and power, discovered new materials and disciplines and combined old materials and disciplines in new ways - women who have done these things have learned a great deal about feminist theory and practice. One of our tasks now should be to teach women what women's studies and the women's liberation movement have taught us. THE NATIONAL CONGRESS OF NEIGHBORHOOD WOMEN: EDUCATION IN THE COMMUNITY Laura Polla Scanlon (Acknowledged are the efforts of Terry Haywoode and Connie Noschese who contributed to portions of this essay.) There is a real need for locally-based higher education opportunities for women who are limited by the demands of family, work and community responsibilities. The impersonal and bureaucratic nature of many large institutions makes them culturally inaccessible to many neighborhood people. Ridgewood-Bushwick, Williamsburg-Greenpoint and Carroll Gardens are multi-ethnic, working class communities in Brooklyn, New York, fighting to survive as viable neighborhoods. They need strong, articulate grassroots leaders who are able to understand and deal with both local issues and the broader social realities which they reflect. Higher education for leadership requires both a strong liberal arts base and specific training for confidence and skills. The National Congress of Neighborhood Women (NCNW) has developed a two year Associate in Arts degree program to provide locally-based access to higher education for community women in these low and moderate income neighborhoods. Designed primarily for adult women who are neighborhood leaders, the program curriculum focuses on neighborhood issues and concerns in the context of traditional liberal arts courses. Leadership development is emphasized, both in course work and in the process of shared decision-making, advocacy-counseling and peer support through which the program is administered; NCNW's curriculum combines aspects of ethnic studies, women's studies, labor history and community dynamics into an integrated course of study directly related to students' lives. The project is staffed by a combination of professional educators, neighborhood women, students and alumnae of the program plus other volunteers, with neighborhood women taking on an increasing share of the responsibility for both administrative and educational policy and implementation. It is a goal of the program to have it run mainly by its constituents and to maintain a working relationship between professional and neighborhood women. Students, staff and faculty collaborate in curriculum development; regular academic liberal arts courses have an experiential or practical base, generating services, information and products to enhance the life of the person, the family and the neighborhood. It is this last feature, NCNW's experiential base, that this essay will address. One of our original principles was that, since empowerment of women was the primary goal of the Congress, the students should participate as fully as possible in the design and implementation of their learning program. Thus, one component of the program was serving on the committees that constituted, alongwith the staff, the decision-making mechanisms for the congress. It should be noted that this NCNW program is co-sponsored by LaGuardia Community College of the City University of New York. Curriculum and faculty are traditionally the province of the academic community and, in fact, the college makes final decisions according to its institutional mandate; student participation in this aspect of their own program design provides a unique opportunity for them to learn how to communicate with college faculty and administrators as peers. This is a valuable kind of learning experience, particularly for working-class and poor people who tend to be mystified by the processes and rationales of institutional decision-making. Working to keep the college program going continues to be a source of solid learning and empowerment for students. Another principle was that the rich life experiences of adult students could provide a practical basis for theoretical learning on several levels--that of the individual woman's personal, perhaps private, relation to the world, her relationship to her family, and her relationship to the larger community. As we developed curricula, we explored those aspects of women's individual lives for practical and theoretical links. In most cases these links were to be found in all three aspects of the students' lives: personal, family and community. Our process was to work with faculty to develop courses combining theory and practice, incorporating women's experiences and concerns. For many students, learning creative expression was important. Art and creative writing courses, inherently experiential, have proved extremely successful. The service component of these courses ensures that art work is shared with the community. Visual art is exhibited at banks, for example, and writing is contributed to local newspapers, the student newsletter, and local radio programs. It is interesting to note that for the NCNW students the world of work is not necessarily where they lack experience. Rather, it is the world of their own creative expression. For example, students in a media arts class produced a half-hour video-tape about the college program, showing changes women and their families had experienced as a result of their going back to school. The students had to master video technology; they also had to learn and apply interviewing techniques and other communication skills. This experiential learning was balanced by theoretical discussions about communications and media. Family relationships and women's role in the family have been a good source for melding theory and practice. Students in a labor and immigration course produced fascinating family histories as their term projects. In another course public schools' values and general attitudes of the staff were contrasted with observations of children and interviews with teachers and children. Students saw this research as work which added a more sophisticated dimension to their roles as family women. Often students elect to do research which has some specific value to them. One woman who was trying to decide which of two schools to send her child to, became an action researcher, interviewed parents, teachers, staff as part of her college work for a course in Social Change and Community Development. Another student, mother of a disabled son, developed recommendations on how the school system could better serve the needs of children with similar handicaps. Another, frustrated by the maze of financial aid forms confronting college students, did an analysis of the socioeconomic context of financial aid and prepared a manual for sister students and their college-age children. Looking toward completing her Associate in Arts degree, one student began organizing community women and negotiating with colleges for a Bachelor of Arts program. In these instances, the specific courses must determine the emphasis--a communications course will emphasize style and form, while a social science course might emphasize methodology or research design. Still, experiential learning is the common base. Because development of women's leadership skills and improvement of community life is a goal of the program, students are provided with many opportunities to use the neighborhood as their laboratory. Sometimes these take the form of internships. For a cooperative education course, students engaged in community work in areas that were new to them, serving, e.g., in a day care center, senior citizens' center, or a program organizing activities for youth. In other cases, students already active in neighborhood activities expanded or altered the scope of their volunteer work into a new experience, requiring mastery of skills such as speech-making, proposal writing or working more sensitively with people. Learning took place in the context of meeting actual neighborhood needs, from the service internships mentioned above to more unusual projects. One student provided a cultural event for the neighborhood by producing and directing a play written by a neighborhood resident and set in her community. Another developed a presentation about breast feeding; her internship involved making this presentation to local women's groups and to school parents' associations. In a course in leadership and community control, students assessed pressing community needs and, working in groups, gathered data around specific issues. They then used this data to develop a program and write a proposal about the needs of youth to be funneled through the local planning board. Other proposals covered issues like, "Wheels for Senior Citizens," and "Scholarships for Students." Community pride was enhanced, and useful information generated, when students researched neighborhood history. One project showed immigration patterns in the neighborhood, its evolving architecture and the contemporary effects of gentrification, calling attention to serious contemporary community problems. This particular history was presented by students at a city-wide neighborhood history conference. Other projects based on historical research dealt with the history of the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway and its effect on neighborhood life. While all of the courses have some experiential component, a unique pilot program was the Williams-Greenpoint colloquium which tested and synthesized the experiential goals of the college. For this experimental project students put aside theory to participate wholly in the hands-on aspect of their learning. Five workshops were formed, led by a mentor: law, health, oral history, creative writing and video techniques. The law and health groups assessed neighborhood legal and health services from a woman's perspective and designed alternative structures for delivering these services, structures more tuned to people's real needs rather than bureaucratic social service restrictions. The creative writing group shared their experiences in poems and stories. The oral history group researched family and neighborhood history and wrote up their findings. During the two quarters the video group mastered video technology. At the end of the 6-credit, two quarter sequence, a neighborhood history fair was held where women shared their work with community residents while the video team recorded the event. At this point in their college program the students were ready to take what they had learned in their theoretical courses and engage in totally experiential learning as neighborhood advocates. At NCNW we believe that true participation in community life and in the process of planning for the future of neighborhoods has become increasingly difficult and demanding. Our research has indicated that neighborhood women all over the United States want an opportunity for higher education that will enrich and empower them as individuals and as community leaders. Our program is designed to meet these needs. The accomplishments of our alumnae are eloquent testimony both to the need for this type of experiential program and for its effectiveness in providing accessible higher education for community women. RETURNING WOMEN AND FIELD EXPERIENCE: A PRELIMINARY RESEARCH STUDY Sharon Rubin (Information in this paper was originally developed for a presentation at the National Society for Internships and Experiential Education annual meeting, 1979. The author wishes to thank Beverly Greenfeig and Barbara Goldberg of the Returning Students Program, University of Maryland, who participated in the original research.) Volunteer Opportunity: Staff representative trainee with local council of union representing employees in six federal agencies. Opportunity to be involved in all phases of running a union, including organizing, research, arbitration and grievance investigation, congressional hearing attendance. Prefer student in personnel/labor relations, economics, or government and politics, but willing to consider others. Paid Internship: $8.00 per hour to organize and help conserve a collection of documents relating to the first woman president of a large retail corporation. Students in the fields of women's history, cultural history, and business especially encouraged to apply. Cooperative Education Placement: Full-time paid positions fall semester with large federal agency in areas of administration, economics, accounting, chemistry, or computer science. Opportunities for permanent employment after graduation. At the University of Maryland College Park, the Office of Experiential Learning Programs coordinates about 1300 volunteer activities, internships for credit, and cooperative education placements like the ones above. Such opportunities provide an alternative to classroom learning, help students see the ways in which theories have practical applications, and offer low-risk career testing. Over 300 students a semester register for the special internship course numbers available for use by faculty members in any department, and over 500 register for special departmental internship courses as well. Women's studies students generally obtain field placements through our office or through listings that go directly from organizations to the Women's Studies Program office. While some returning women students major in women's studies and participate in women's studies internships, most returning students pursue traditional majors and seek field experience within those majors. Over the past several years, our staff and staff members of the Returning Students Program have become aware that few returning women, of about 1900 on campus, seem to take advantage of field experience opportunities, or even to use the Experiential Learning Programs office as an information resource. In order to determine why a group supposedly more aware than typical eighteen-year-olds of the relationship of education to work and of theory to practice seem so hesitant to participate in a program emphasizing these linkages, we questioned returning and college-age students by questionnaire and informally, we analyzed enrollment data, and we consulted our counterparts on other campuses. What we learned is worth sharing not because it provides easy answers but because it emphasizes the need for those involved with returning women students to ask more sophisticated questions. To find out whether our experiences were comparable to those of experiential educators on other campuses, we developed a questionnaire (Appendix A), which we hoped would distinguish between male and female college-age and returning students and their needs and practices, and which would help enumerate ways of interesting returning women in field experience. The questionnaires were sent to 238 internship coordinators, field experience offices, cooperative education directors, and others involved in experiential learning. The return rate, 21%, was disappointing, but the results of the meager return were illuminating. The level of response and the type of response made us aware that many of our hypotheses were questionable. For instance, we assumed that most internship coordinators could provide statistics on age and sex of interns. Nineteen respondents noted that they do not keep any statistics on the sex or age of student interns, and some even replied that they do not keep any statistics at all on students doing field experience. Ten respondents noted that there were very few returning students at their colleges, but twenty-three returned some information. Of the twenty-three, approximately a third felt that returning students participate in field experience more than traditional college-age students, about a third felt that they participate equally, and about a third suggested that they participate less than college-age students. Almost all respondents admitted that their beliefs were based on anecdotal information and impressions. For instance, one respondent commented that women participate less because they are "charged with rearing children." Another commented that returning students participate more because they have stronger feelings of who they are and where they belong. Another of our hypotheses was that most colleges provide a returning students program like the one on our campus, which includes one-to-one counseling by peer advisors, workshops on a range of subjects from time management to examination skills, and a "College Aims for Returning Women" course which emphasizes career planning, reading and study skills, and multiple role management. Only 18% of the respondents mentioned special programs, ranging from a special advising office to continuing education for displaced homemakers. Our third assumption was that there would be a number of special programs to encourage returning women to participate in internships. Only 20% mentioned any special efforts, mainly orientations or brochures. Finally, we assumed that most administrators who deal with internships, volunteer service-learning, or cooperative education would be aware of the need to think about the special requirements of returning women. However, several coordinators noted, "I've never thought about this before." It seems likely that as experiential educators become more oriented to seeking out and encouraging diverse populations of students rather than serving those who happen to walk in the door, their understanding of returning women and their characteristics will become even more crucial. The less/same as/more split in the perceptions of those who do deal with returning students illustrates this clearly. The "returning woman" is no more certainly a homogeneous category than the "black student" or the "handicapped student." Internship coordinators must ask, "Who are our returning women students, and what do they need?" In an attempt to answer that question for our campus, we first analyzed enrollment data provided by our Data Research Center. The campus is fortunate to have good records and a research unit to make them available to campus offices. The data we collected are for one representative semester, but similar figures exist for others. Of 29,500 undergraduates, 53% are male, 47% are female. In the returning student population, the percentages are just about reversed, with 48% male and 52% female. Despite such reasonably equal percentages of adult learners, returning women are considerably more visible on campus, perhaps because of media attention or because of special campus events for them. Another explanation may be that at College Park, 60% of male returning students are between 26 and 29, while only 35% of returning women are below the age of 30. Understandably, there are slightly more juniors and seniors among the returning student population than among the general college population. Because of the many different options for experiential learning-- campus-wide internship options, departmental internships for majors, practica, fieldwork, and field laboratories, both optional and mandatory--and because volunteer service/learning is not recorded by the registrar at all, it is difficult to accurately assess the number of students involved in experiential learning. However, statistics on both the campus-wide internship courses and on departmental internship courses seem to indicate two things: returning students participate in experiential learning about 25% less than traditional college-age students, and very few returning students do internships before senior year. We questioned students both informally and formally about their views of experiential learning. Most returning women warmly embraced the concept of experiential learning and mentioned that their past experiences had persuaded them of the value of doing additional field work. However, in the "College Aims" course for returning women, our discussions often elicited a set of responses that can best be characterized by the description, "But I'm Not An Expert!" Students, who were mainly in their first semester back in college, were dubious about why anyone would want to offer them an internship or other placement. Over and over, in many different ways, we heard women say, "I'll practice when I'm good enough." Instead of considering experience as a method of learning, they considered experience as practice to perfect knowledge obtained through classes. When our staff explained that organizations were well aware that they were getting motivated but amateur workers, the women refused to see themselves as learner/workers. Perhaps they feared that the expectations of a supervisor would be different when working with an adult student, or perhaps they had grown used to devaluing their own competence. In any case, they continued to express enthusiasm about doing internships sometime in the future when they would feel prepared. The formal questionnaire (Appendix B) did not elicit exactly the same response. 42% of the returning students indicated a willingness to consider participating in field experience immediately or the next semester, while only 30% of the traditional college-age students did. However, returning students did indicate more concern with having enough expertise and confidence than did college-age students. In answering the question, "If I have not and do not plan to participate in field experience, it is because ______," returning students chose the following answers most frequently: "I don't have any information about field experience," "I have never thought about it," "I don't know how to get started," and "I need a job that pays well ," closely followed by, "I don't have enough knowledge and skills in any particular area," "I don't know anyone who has done it," "I don't have any contacts to help me," and "I don't have the time." The answers that we expected to be prevalent, "I need a job that pays well, and "I don't have enough time," were no more popular than any of their other concerns or than those concerns among college-age students . We have no explanation for the discrepancy between the information we received in questionnaires and the information we received by talking with students. However, we did note a high degree of anxiety in returning women who were worried about giving the "right" answer, and that may have led some to respond in a positive way to what they thought we expected. Also, because some of those answering questionnaires were seniors, they did feel more positive about their participation in experiential learning. As I often ask students, what do we know now that we know this? Our research has helped us recognize that returning students as a group are more heterogeneous than we assumed, although on our campus they are, as a group, considerably older than returning male students. We discovered that returning students who have "been around" through volunteer work and paid employment still recognize the value of field experience for themselves in a number of ways, and do not intend to let past experience suffice. We realized that while many students responded positively to a question about intent to immediately participate in field experience, virtually all of them wait until senior year to participate. Finally, we found that although time and money are concerns for returning women, their participation or lack of it depends on a much broader and more complex set of variables, including self-concept . It seems likely, from what we have learned, that our present sponsorship of workshops in conjunction with the "College Aims" course and presentations to the University Returning Students Association are insufficient. We are considering a number of alternatives that might substantially improve our services to returning students. First, we plan to train peer advisors in the Returning Students Program so that they are aware of student uncertainties about experiential learning and can learn techniques for effective counseling. Second, we might develop a "road show" which uses returning students who have done internships to answer the concerns of returning women about learner/worker roles. Finally, we might, in the long range, use the University of Kentucky's Project Ahead as a model (1). Project Ahead combines a one-semester paid internship (with business, government, or the non-profit sector) with academic credit, a leadership and career planning seminar, individualized assistance, ongoing support from other interns, and interaction with community and business leaders. Such a combination of approaches would make good sense developmentally as well as educationally. Whatever our choices, our goals will be to answer the questions of returning women about what field experience is and how to participate, to address returning women on the variety of issues we now know concern them, and to provide programming to move them from the point of intending to participate to using field experience as an alternative style of learning throughout college. By attempting to reach these goals, we will not only serve returning women more effectively but we will, in turn, be learning to serve all our students with more knowledge and consciousness of their needs. NOTES Project Ahead, a University of Kentucky internship program, is designed primarily for women over 25 who have been out of the educational and employment mainstream for several years before returning to college. The program, supported by the Fund for Improvement of Postsecondary Education and administered by the Office for Experiential Education, provides individualized assistance to women in making the transition from education to work. Further information can be obtained from Project Ahead, Ligon House, 658 South Limestone St., University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506. Appendix A NAME______________________________________TITLE____________________ COLLEGE___________________________________TWO OR FOUR YEAR_________ ADDRESS____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ DEFINITIONS: For purposes of this questionnaire, a returning student is over 24 years of age and either did not enroll as a college student immediately after high school or did so and dropped out for at least one year before returning to college. Field experience is an off-campus learning experience that is usually unpaid and credited but that may be paid and/or non-credit, as, for example, in the case of cooperative education. 1. What is your male undergraduate enrollment?_____________________ What is your female undergraduate enrollment?___________________ 2. What is your male returning student enrollment?_________________ What is your female returning student enrollment?_______________ 3. What percentage of male returning students attend full-time?_____ What percentage of female returning students attend full-time?___ 4. How many students in all participate in field experience each semester? Males_____________ Females_________________ 5. Do returning male students participate less/as much as/more than traditional college age males in field experience?___________________ Do they participate less/as much as/more than college age females?_______________ Do returning student females participate less/as much as/more than traditional college age females in field experience?____________ Do they participate less/as much as/more than college age males?_____ 6. Do returning male students seem to be particularly interested in a specific type of field experience? If so, please describe: Do returning female students seem to be particularly interested in a specific type of field experience? If so, please describe: 7. Do you have statistics to support your answers to questions 4, 5, and 6? If so, please attach. If not, what is the source of your information? 8. Do you have any possible explanations or suggestions about your answers to questions 5 and 6? 9. Does your school have any special program for returning students? If so, please describe: 10. Does your school have a clearing house or special office that coordinates field experience? Yes___ No___. If no, is it handled by departments? Yes___ No___. If no, how is it coordinated? Please describe: 11. Does your school or office make any special effort to interest returning students in field experience? Yes____No____ through orientations_____workshops______courses________other_________ 12. Is there anything you'd like to share about returning students and their use of field experience? Appendix B We are attempting to find out what students know about field experience, how they feel about it, and how they make use of it, in order to improve our service to you. Please take a few minutes to fill out all four sides of the following questionnaire. Check as many choices in each item as you wish. If you are not sure about some choices, please do not worry; just do the best you can. 1. What is field experience? ___Practical work experience in my major ___Volunteering ___Internship or practicum for credit ___Laboratory accompanying a course ___Visits to work sites ___Clinical training ___Extra-curricular activities such as student organizations or sports ___Career exploration ___Employment ___Teaching assistantship ___Travel ___Experience related to agriculture or farming ___Requirement for my major ___Learning by doing ___Credit for prior work experience ___Cooperative education ___Any class on the College Park campus 2. I have participated in field experience: ___Not at all (PROCEED DIRECTLY TO QUESTION 4 IF THIS IS YOUR CHOICE) ___Once ___Twice ___Three or more times 3. I participated in field experience by: ___Volunteering ___Registering for 386 and 387 ___Registering for another course (please describe)____________________ ___Taking a cooperative education position ___Other (please describe)_____________________________________________ 4. I would consider participating in field experience: ___This semester ___Next semester ___Sometime in the future ___After I graduate ___Not sure ___Not at all (PROCEED DIRECTLY TO QUESTION 6 IF THIS IS YOUR CHOICE) 5. I have chosen the response referred to in Question 4 because: ___I'll have more time ___I'll have more expertise ___I'll have more confidence ___I'll have a better sense of what I want to do ___I'll have a lighter class load or I will have met my major requirements ___I'll be ready ___Other (please describe)___________________________________ IF YOU HAVE ANSWERED QUESTIONS 2,3 AND/OR 5, PROCEED DIRECTLY TO QUESTION 7. 6. If I have not and do not plan to participate in field experience, it is because: ___I don't have the time ___I don't want to use credits on field experience ___I don't have enough knowledge or skills in any particular area ___I don't know how to get started ___I have heard it is difficult to find a faculty member to sponsor my credit ___I have heard it is difficult to find an organization that wants students ___I have heard it is difficult to register ___I need a job that pays well ___I don't know anybody who has done it ___I don't have any contacts to help me pursue a field experience ___I don't have any information about field experience ___I have never thought about it ___Other (please describe)____________________________________ Whatever your answers to the previous questions about your participation, please answer the following questions about whether or not field experience is valuable to you: 7. Field experience is valuable to me because: ___It will look good on my resume ___It relates theory to practice ___It's a good way to try out a field of interest ___It helps me make up my mind about a major ___It helps me get out of the classroom ___It's good to have experience in my field ___It allows me to meet people in my field ___I can get credit for the experience I'm having ___It makes me aware of the different ways people learn ___It helps me organize my time ___It increases my confidence in my ability to work ___It improves the way I work with others ___It expands my world view ___It makes me more competent in my profession ___It teaches me about the concerns of the work world ___It adds meaning to my classroom experience ___It expands my vocabulary ___Other (please describe)__________________________________ 8. Field experience is not valuable to me because: ___It takes too much time ___It is no help to me in getting a job ___Credit for classroom learning is more legitimate ___Employers don't care about student work experience ___It's not a good way to learn ___It doesn't pay a salary ___I don't plan to seek employment ___Other (please describe)__________________________________ 9. My status is: ___Freshman ___Sophomore ___Junior ___Senior ___Special student ___Graduate student 10. I have been a student at the College Park campus for: ___one semester or less ___two semesters ___three semesters ___four or more semesters 11. My major is: ___undecided ___list major_______________ 12. My age is: ___below 18 ___18 ___19 ___20 ___21 ___22 ___23-25 ___26-30 ___31-35 ___36-40 ___over 40 If you would like the results of this questionnaire, or more information about field experience, please fill in the following: Name_______________________________________________________________ Address____________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________Zip Code____________ Or, stop by Experiential Learning Programs, 0119 Undergraduate Library, 454-4767. Thank you for your help! THE CONGRESSIONAL INTERNSHIPS ON WOMEN AND PUBLIC POLICY Phyllis M. Palmer In September, 1980, a research task force of eleven graduate interns began work for the Congresswomen's Caucus: sponsored by women members of Congress, placed in offices and on committee staffs under their aegis members and that of their male Congressional allies, and supervised academically by the Women's Studies Program and Policy Center at the George Washington University. The Congressional Internships on Women and Public Policy are funded by a grant to the Women's Studies Program from the Charles H. Revson Foundation. Each legislative intern receives a stipend of $8,000.00 for the academic year. This legislative internship program is the culmination of a three-year discussion about the structure and goals of GWU's graduate program in women's studies. When I came to Washington, D. C., to become academic coordinator of the program in 1977, intent on applying theories and ideas developed teaching women's history at Mount Holyoke College, I very quickly learned I was ignorant about contemporary women's political efforts and that I was naive about the world of lobbying, trading legislative favors, tracking federal legislation through adoption and appropriation processes, and commenting on the administrative regulations needed to implement legislation. My need for practical knowledge of federal policy making was highlighted by contrast with the political expertise of two colleagues who had also just joined the program, hopeful of developing an academic base there for women's movement activists. Virginia Allan, a former chair of the 1970 President's Commission on the Status of Women and advocate for the National Women's Conference in Houston, wanted to see academic work that was pertinent to the lobbying efforts and publicity needs of women's groups; Charlotte Conable, an alumna of the Women's Studies Program and wife of an influential Republican Congressman, sought to make the academic program more responsive to the political issues she saw raised in Congress. As we three discussed skills women need to function effectively as lobbyists, office-holders and political activists, I began to see how thoroughly academic feminists can avoid issues of power and legislative persuasion, and how completely activists can ignore feminist research and theory. Another impetus to the shaping of our legislative internship program was the need of a graduate program in women's studies to provide professional skills and competencies that would be recognized by potential employers of our graduates. The GWU Program had been giving academic credit for 1OO-hour a semester internships (practica) since its inception in 1973, with students placed in a variety of settings serving women. The record of alumnae employment indicated that most students found post-graduation jobs through the internship placement: the internship allowed students to do a project pertinent to the needs of a sponsoring organization, and thus to demonstrate the practical adaptability of training in women's studies. Internships also made students a known quantity, persons recognized as reliable by those who might offer jobs in the future; students were assured that they would know and be known by some employers. Given our location in Washington, and our interest in training students who could be effective advocates and analysts of federal policies, the idea of placing interns in legislative offices in a structured fashion was a natural outgrowth of previous internship activities. A final concern, and one that became most salient in our subsequent planning, was the provision of financial assistance to students for the period of their internship. In order to have an integrated training program that allowed substantial time to learn the legislative process and to critique and analyze its results, more than the 100 hours per semester allotted to the practicum course would be required. Graduate students, many of whom support themselves and children, could not take a prolonged internship away from their half- and full-time jobs. Both the responsibilities of our adult students and the intellectual requirements of integrating academic and political work necessitated finding financial support for interns. Further, it seemed to me, Women's Studies could never produce theoretically sophisticated and politically astute graduates until we could provide students with time and freedom to think leisurely and systematically. We may not be able to give women a life-time annuity, as Virginia Woolf had advocated, but we might be able to give them a one-year stipend. The desire for funding led us into a series of negotiations with various institutions and between various institutional interests. We had to locate potential funding sources; we had to find a non-partisan medium through which to guarantee that funders were not directly supporting partisan legislators, and we had to assure the sponsoring university that its students would be doing work deserving academic credit. Fortunately, the Congresswomen's Caucus, the coalition of women members of Congress, had just created a non-profit research entity, the Women's Research and Education Institute (WREI). The Institute was looking for research assistance for itself and for the women members. Together, we began to negotiate with the women members to determine how we could place students in congressional offices under the joint auspices of the Women's Studies Program and the Institute, and how we could provide guarantees that the students would develop research useful to the Congresswomen without, at the same time, becoming involved with partisan, political election issues. The Congresswomen's Caucus proved amenable to our needs. It agreed to provide office space and supervision for students, who would not be expected to do political campaign work, but would be expected to organize their research around the substantive interests and legislative concerns of the office. The students' function would be to enhance the members' and committees' knowledge about women's issues, to be a "surplus benefit" to the office, rather than just extra staff. They were to work at least 30 hours per week, since any smaller commitment could not reimburse the office for the space and supervisory time it was contributing. Even the Caucus, established in 1977, suffers the classic women's group problem: little money and shortage of staff. With only 17 women in that Congress, their resources had to be used for constituent interests as well as in support of research and action on women's issues. Once we had agreed on the form of congressional placements, we turned to the university's interests. The pertinent administrators set two requirements to ensure that students would not be performing partisan work and that they would deserve academic credit for the work performed: all students accepted into the internship had to be degree candidates, and their work had to be evaluated by an interdisciplinary committee able to review an array of projects and topics. The guarantor for academic merit became the Women's Studies Steering Committee, and I was given released time to meet with students in a weekly seminar. With all these negotiations completed, we went back to our potential funders, mainly larger foundations. Our primary funder became the Charles H. Revson Foundation, whose president, Eli N. Evans, a former program officer at the Carnegie Foundation, had had a great deal of experience with intern and student development projects for Southern Blacks during the 1960's and early '70's. Evans had persuaded the Revson board to adopt, as one of its principal goals, the development of women in leadership roles, and he helped us conceptualize more clearly the goals of our internship: to develop a "hybrid" who could move comfortably and confidently between the research and legislative realms, and to encourage women to think systematically as they are acting in legislative arenas. Evans also encouraged us to think about the internships a long-term project. With initial funding from Revson to support us through academic year 1982-83, we anticipate that we will be able to build a reputation for solid work; the benefits of the program thus demonstrated, we should be better able to attract small chunks of support from corporate donors and foundations that have shown willingness to support training programs for women but are unlikely to make the large commitment necessary to start and test a major program. Our next, and most pleasant task, was to select the first interns. Two considerations directed our selection. First, we had to balance the substantive interests of the Congresswomen with the interests of the graduate students. Congresswomen were polled, and gave us a list of "timely" topics they wanted researched for 1980-81; these included women and credit, women and social security, women and pensions, women and health care, women in the military, occupational hazards and safety, and women and the federal budget. We then sought students in appropriate fields: women's studies, economics, sociology, health care, psychology and public administration. Applicants completed a standard form, indicating academic background, interests, and competence in writing and research. The second important consideration, from our perspective, was that students have some demonstrated interest in women's issues, interest in political activities, and tolerance for the exigencies of being an elected official. We interviewed applicants, and talked with them about their assessment of the political value of research they had done. We looked both for feminist understanding of social organization and a flexible approach to political bargaining: a major concern of the congressional offices was that the interns not be ideologues unable to understand that Congresswomen must sometimes represent their constituents' desires rather than their own, and that an opponent on one issue can be a friend on another. Students selected for the first group of internships reflected our concern for a balance of research ability with personal maturity. Most are in their late twenties; one is in her mid-forties. Two are raising children, and all have worked at full time jobs along with graduate study. Many have political experience (working for Common Cause, NOW, in battered women's shelters and rape crisis centers); one has finished law school, and another is in her third year. These interns began meeting together in mid-July 1980, to learn about the legislative and administrative organization of the Congress before beginning work in their assigned offices in September. Their five-week course on "Women and Public Policy" was directed by a specially appointed faculty member with both academic experience in women's studies and political experience working on social security reform at the Department of Health and Social Services. The interns will continue to meet weekly throughout the year in a 3 credit intern policy seminar. The weekly seminar is designed to provide essential cohort support for the interns, protecting them from becoming wrapped up in the intense electioneering atmosphere of many of their offices, and to magnify their concentration and the effectiveness of their feminist research by enabling them to share resources, insights and analyses. It will also enable interns to meet with leaders of women's political organizations to exchange information gleaned from and about the federal system and to learn about the work of these groups that support legislation and critique regulations. By the end of the academic year, students should have completed papers and projects (such as organizing hearings) that entitle them to 12 hours of research credit in women's studies and related disciplines. Their assignments are to include two research projects: a review of research/administrative action on some long-term topic of interest, and legislative monitoring and review of a current piece of legislation. As much as possible, students' hours in their offices will have been devoted to their research assignments, but they will also have been called upon to give briefings, write speeches and answer constituent mail. It is not easy to put together political exigencies and academic requirements. There are undoubtedly many problems remaining to be solved as the internship project unfolds, but such efforts are one embodiment of what feminists and women's studies theorists have always advocated: the application of systematic intelligence to the process of social change. We hope that the alliance between the GWU Women's Studies Program and the Women's Research and Education Institute of the Congresswomen's Caucus will be a model for other such alliances, between women's studies programs and feminist legislators in state and municipal government across the country. AN INTERNSHIP IN SCIENCE, POLITICS AND FEMINISM I. DESCRIPTION OF A PILOT PROJECT M. Sue Wagner and Alwynelle S. Ahl Politics, particularly legislative action, has long been of concern to feminists. In recent years, some of the most controversial political issues have been those affecting women. Many of these issues have dealt with the role of biology in the lives of women, particularly concerns about reproductive health. The pilot project described here was designed as an attempt to provide a research resource to those in politics and government concerned with feminist issues, to provide women's studies students an opportunity to learn more about the legislative process first-hand, and to expose students to the potential for careers with state and local governments. In order to have good laws there must be a background of reliable and current information with which to develop legislation. Recognizing the increasing importance of biological knowledge to legislation being drafted in Michigan, the NOW (National Organization for Women) legislative liaison sought to develop a resource base of scientific information pertinent to present political issues. In order to accomplish this goal, the NOW lobbyist sought help from several faculty members in the Department of Natural Science at Michigan State University. The result of this collaboration was an independent study internship program titled "Issues of Science and Society, Science and Politics." In the fall of 1979, women's studies students at MSU were given an opportunity to participate in this program. In the pilot project, selected students worked with a supervising professor from the Department of Natural Science and the liaison lobbyist for Michigan NOW. Students worked on political problems involving a substantial scientific component, usually a topic concerning women's health. The research done by the students and faculty was useful to NOW and to some legislators in a variety of ways. It provided background information for pending legislation, defined and clarified biological and medical terminology, provided data which could be used for legislative floor debate, provided background information and recommendation for future legislation, and provided an historical framework regarding issues in politics and women's health. In each case the student worked closely with a faculty advisor, the NOW representative, and in certain instances with members of the legislature. Students earned from two to four (quarter) credit hours of independent study which was applicable to their Women's Thematic Program, toward elective credit, or as science credit. The projects were varied. One student defined the diseases which could endanger a woman's health during pregnancy. This information was used to write amendments to a bill which seeks to prohibit Medicaid funding for abortions unless the life of the woman is endangered. Another student researched the history of the anti-abortion movement in America and its relation to the nineteenth century professionalization of medicine. Another student studied the effects of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs on women, especially pregnant women. Then, based on her research she made recommendations for possible legislative action. Another student did research on the impact of lead poisoning in the workplace. Particularly examined were the levels of lead in the workplace that affect fertility. He suggested legislation which would improve such hazardous working conditions. There were benefits from this program for students, for NOW, for participating faculty, and for legislators. The students learned about the political process as involved participants rather than as observers. They learned to translate the results of scientific studies into information necessary for legislative action. The students' viewpoint on science and the legislative process was considerably broadened. In the process students learned how the work of scientists affects society. In addition the experience pointed out potential employment opportunities. In fact one student is now working for a legislator met in the course of this internship. Another student is now working for the county agency in which the intern research was done last term. The information provided by student and faculty research is a new resource available to legislators. Furthermore, the growing data base permits Michigan NOW to do background work for new legislation as opposed to merely reacting to it. A potential result is that feminists can become an integral part of the inner workings of the legislature rather than only an outside pressure group. The benfits for faculty included close work with superior students in supervised independent study. It was gratifying to watch students develop an appreciation for the practical uses of seemingly abstract scientific ideas. Several of the papers completed to date are being jointly published by the student and faculty member. The internship program has been offered again during winter term of 1980, and the fall term of 1980-81. Following that semester a complete evaluation of the program will be undertaken, a decision made as to whether the program should be enlarged and how administrative details will be handled, etc. At this point the program seems to have a number of benefits for all involved, but it is a time-consuming administrative chore for certain faculty. It is possible that this internship will be incorporated formally into the Women's Studies Program at MSU, expanding to include faculty from the social sciences as well as the natural sciences. This would broaden the scope of research undertaken and thus the resource base available to legislators. State legislatures, city councils and county commissions are increasingly called upon to make laws regarding our biology and our health. They often do not have staffs with sufficient expertise to address these questions as carefully as they should be addressed. Thus, for legislators, this program provides a means of tapping scientific expertise in order to improve the quality of legislation; it provides students with practical experience with science and politics and feminism; it provides NOW with a valuable database for present and future activity. We consider that the initial trial of the project has been a success. II. A STUDENT PERSPECTIVE Amy N. Moss In September of 1979 I enrolled in a one-term Internship (independent study in the Department of Natural Science) in Science, Politics, and Feminism. Initially I enrolled because the course fulfilled a natural science requirement and counted toward my Women's Studies Thematic Program at Michigan State University (MSU). In this internship I worked with a faculty member (Alwynelle Ahl), the Michigan NOW lobbyist (Sue Wagner), and a member of the state legislature (Senator Doug Ross, D-Oakland). My chosen assignment was to research how some specific diseases or conditions in pregnancy affect women's present and future health. In particular I worked on Senate Bill 157, which reads as follows "...An abortion shall not be a service provided to a recipient of medical assistance under this act except if the abortion is necessary to save the life of the mother." The latter part of this statement was to be my primary concern. What health conditions pre-existing before pregnancy pose special health hazards in pregnancy? It was important that these facts be added as amendments to this Bill to prolong deliberation on it, to diminish its impact on poor women, or to cause the Bill to be withdrawn or killed. Pregnancy always poses some threat to a woman's health and life. Certain pre-existing diseases, such as diabetes or sickle cell anemia, increase the risk of pregnancy for a woman. With excellent medical care, that threat can be minimized. However, for women who have not had excellent medical care before conception or who do not have excellent care during pregnancy, the threat is greater. My task was to research specific health conditions (some 20 of them) in which abortions might be necessary to save the life of the woman. The research was made into a packet of amendments that could be used against this Bill and against similar legislation in other parts of the country. Medical texts and journals from the MSU science library provided my basic information. In weekly meetings with my professor we reviewed the material collected for each disease or condition. I also maintained contact with the Michigan NOW lobbyist who was responsible for arranging the political end of the internship. Senator Doug Ross and his staff director, Robert O'Leary, directed my work at the legislature. They kept me apprised of where the Bill stood, and made sure I was writing the amendments properly. The outcomes of this project were all positive for me. Most of all, it was satisfying to see my work used. Of all the papers I have written for college credit, this was by far the most meaningful. When I enrolled in this internship, I was a disillusioned psychology major, and had recently added social work as a second major. I had been disappointed with the psychology courses at MSU and I hoped the social work courses would be more applicable to real life. My desire was to work on a one-to-one basis with people, perhaps as a feminist-therapist. However, I was really without a definite career goal when I began this internship. Several very important things happened to me as a result of my work in this internship. The first was that I grew more confident of myself as a writer and researcher. It meant a great deal to me that my material would be used by professionals in the political arena and as a starting point for further research by my professor. What was especially significant about the uses of my work in the political arena was that it coincided so completely with my own feminist political beliefs. Had I researched the same material for a traditional science course as a term paper, the information probably would have never gotten any further than the professor's desk, my personal satisfaction no further than a grade. Because the information being researched was needed for policy development purposes, and because I was working with legislative policy makers, my research was much more valuable to me. Out of this experience came a much greater understanding of the political process. I had never realized before how much a legislator must trust the members of his/her staff to provide them with adequate information. I learned very quickly that it would be impossible for a lawmaker to know all the facts about every issue that comes up; his or her staff is invaluable in providing facts about key issues, and thus, in contributing to political decisions. Since last fall, I have changed my major and developed a career goal; it is apparent that the internship experience influenced these choices. Before the internship, my knowledge of policy makers and administrators was so limited that I had not considered a career in public policy. I had never met a female policy maker, but I had met and admired several female counselors or therapists. So in a way, I was scared away from even considering a non-traditional career because of my ignorance, my lack of female role models, and my lack of confidence in my own abilities. It took me a while to realize that I had drifted into my majors probably because I was female, a difficult thing to admit for someone who prides herself on awareness of sexism. This internship has helped me see that there is a need for female decision makers in the political process, and that I would like my "place" in the whole scheme of things to be in the decision-making area rather than in the distributive area as a social worker or therapist. Perhaps I would be good as a therapist or a social worker, but my ability to influence others would be limited to a relatively few clients. My wish now is to have a career in which I can achieve more power, status and influence. My reasons for wanting this are not totally selfish ones: if more women achieve power positions in government and industry, there is some hope that major changes can be made regarding policies that affect women. If we don't do for ourselves no one will do for us! STUDENT INTERNSHIP IN ISSUES OF SCIENCE AND SOCIETY, SCIENCE AND POLITICS Students selected will work with a supervising professor and an individual in state politics. In this pilot project, the political liaison will be the registered lobbyist for NOW (National Organization for Women). Students will plan and organize their independent study projects with these two supervisors. Topics for research are wide and varied with opportunity for students to work on projects close to their own personal interests. Some suggested topics are listed below. ABORTION THERAPEUTIC ABORTION DES AND DRUGS IN PREGNANCY STERILITY CONTRACEPTION SCIENCE TEXTBOOKS ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS IN PREGNANCY FERTILITY AND PRE-CONCEPTION HEALTH FERTILITY AND PRE-CONCEPTION HEALTH RISK OF MORTALITY IN PREGNANCY EDUCATION AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH For Fall 1979 and Winter 1980, we would like to have some interns who are interested in researching guidelines for maternal health in pregnancy as related to therapeutic abortion. Students chosen for this Internship may earn up to 4 credits in Natural Science 300 for each term of participation (total credits in NS300 must not exceed 12). MICHIGAN NOW National Organization for Women .....NOW's purpose is to take action to bring women into full porticipation in the mainstream of American society now, exercising all the privileges and responsibilities thereof in truly equal partnership with men. CODE OF CONFIDENTIALITY As an intern for the National Organization for Women (NOW),I understand that I will have certain responsibilities which may expose me to situations where I will hear information about public officials which should not be revealed. Furthermore, this signed statement means that I also understand the importance of confidentiality of political strategies of NOW and legislators who advocate NOW's political positions. I am, however, free to discuss my project with others so long as it has no long or short term negative ramifications for NOW. Therefore, this statement is to assure NOW that I understand the importance of my position and that I represent NOW; I then agree not to disclose any information which I might hear about someone in either the political or personal domain. SIGNED:_______________________________ DATE: FEMINIST LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES IN EXPERIENTIAL EDUCATION Ann Simon For over fifty years Antioch College, in Yellow Springs, Ohio, has required a field experience program of cooperative education for all students in this small, private liberal arts college. Antioch students alternate quarters of study on campus with quarters of full time paid employment or equivalent activity off-campus throughout the United States. To meet requirements for graduation they must complete at least six different field placements. The coop program is integral to the Antioch curriculum; some work experiences are considered essential to the students' general education, while others serve as part of their preparation in a major academic field. In addition, the coop program is seen as an opportunity for students to seek first-hand experience in deciding on a course of study and in preparing for post-graduation employment or graduate school. Each quarter, coop students are placed on one of several hundred jobs regularly available through the Center for Cooperative Education; placements are based on students' preferences, an assessment of their skills, coursework and previous experience. Before leaving campus for the field placement, students determine their learning objectives with a member of the coop faculty. When they complete their fieldwork, they are evaluated by the employer; students also write a description of their work, produce a paper or project documenting and evaluating what they learned, and have a final conference with their coop advisor to discuss the extent to which their educational objectives were achieved. Credit is awarded on the basis of documented learning as well as responsible and successful performance on the job. Within the context of this program, there are three major areas in which I have sought to create feminist learning experiences: encouraging women undergraduates to approach their own lives with a feminist perspective as they make decisions about their futures; making available placements with organizations working on feminist issues; assisting students to utilize tools of feminist observation and analysis in a variety of job settings. Similar efforts could be made in many different types of experiential education programs whose on-going responsibility is to arrange off-campus learning experiences, such as a coop or service learning program on campus, a department of experience-based education, a public policy internship program, pre-professional training opportunities (student teaching, social work practica, internships in the ministry, law, nursing, etc.), an urban semester program, an off-campus project during a winter term or even summer employment arranged for credit independently by students. Here we may find experiential educators and placement professionals whose interest in feminism motivates them to design special opportunities within existing programs to meet the specific needs of women's studies students. Feminist Life/Career Planning Field placement professionals--explicitly or implicitly--help students make decisions about their future life work through direct experience in preparation for a specific career. With feminist consciousness-raising in mind, I have identified the following assumptions or expectations (geared primarily to this 18-21 year-old college population) that I encourage each student to make about herself. I view these assumptions as a statement of what each woman fundamentally deserves, a starting point from which she can then deal with race, class and/or sex barriers she may encounter. 1. She will have an adult work life of forty years or more. 2. She can spend her years of employment at work she chooses. 3. In selecting a direction for her life work, she begins with the belief that she is competent, and takes into consideration all possible options open to her. She is careful to sort out her own interests from expectations that other people may have for her. She has the right to determine what she wants, and to take appropriate action to achieve it. She is free to take risks, and she may change her mind. 4. She will be able to support herself by her labor, and to support other people--adults and children--whom she may choose to include in her life. 5. She can live where her work and interests take her. I usually present these assumptions to students in the context of individual conversation in my office, while discussing how the coop program works, what a student learned during a recent field placement, what job to select for the next coop quarter, what she intends to major in, and what she'll do when she graduates. Women's studies faculty can also raise these same issues in individual conversation with advisees as well as in the classroom. When I present these expectations to students I am careful never to make sex-stereotyped assumptions, such as encouraging a young woman to work as a teacher's aide because she lists child care experience on her resume (perhaps the only money-making option she was able to pursue before entering college), or assuming that a woman who says she's interested in science means biology or botany rather than graduate work in astrophysics. I also point out to a student any stereotyped assumptions she may be making about herself, and urge her to broaden her perspective. For example, a student may have the impulse to withdraw from candidacy for her preferred field placement if she learns that an acquaintance wants the same job, saying she is sure the other person is better qualified. I suggest that she may not be giving herself credit for the ability she has, noting that women habitually underrate our skills and even apologize for our achievements by attributing them to good fortune. In this case I present her with evidence of her competence from my knowledge of her previous work or from employer ratings in her file. I also discuss her desire to avoid competition, noting how women are taught that it's "too selfish" to give more importance to our own wishes than to those of a friend and it's "too pushy" to stick up for what we want. I submit that it might be a positive experience to"practice" competing with a student she knows, even if the other person does get the job. The assumption that adult women can take charge of their lives can be very powerful. At times--even on the Antioch campus where feminist values are part of the dominant campus climate--students find it difficult or conflict-producing (as well as thrilling and intoxicating) to fully internalize and act upon this premise. As feminist educators, we can help students think about life/career issues to sort out and deal with their changing values, doubts and conflicts, as well as their growing confidence. Feminist Work Experiential learning programs can utilize existing resources to create feminist field placements. My definition of feminist field work includes any field experience with an organization that addresses women's issues and works to further feminist aims. Organizations where feminist field placements are possible can be described or categorized in several ways: according to the kind of work they do, the issues or clientele they address, their long-range goals, and their organizational structure. The following impressionistic continuum of the field experiences available to Antioch students over the past several years, takes into account a combination of these factors. Radical Feminist Organizations: characterized by an effort to create a non-hierarchic organizational structure, collective decision-making process, shared responsibility for routine tasks; also the commitment to working for fundamental change in the life experience of women while building new, all-women, feminist structures. Students have worked in the following settings of this nature: feminist counseling collective (Georgia); women's land (Oregon); feminist theater (D.C.); shelter for battered women (Florida); women's health center (California); and lesbian resort community (Florida). Organization With Explicit Feminist Goals: characterized by a commitment to working for fundamental change in the life experience of women, maintaining a moderate or minimum degree of hierarchy in staff structure and decision-making. Students have worked with many groups that fall into this category: rape crisis center (Georgia), feminist-oriented monthly newspaper (Texas), projects organizing women office, factory, domestic workers (Massachusetts, North Carolina), and various women's rights activities including ERA campaign (Illinois), monitoring vocational education legislation compliance (Georgia), providing hot-line information service about Title IX regulations regarding athletics (D.C.). Women's Issue Organizations: characterized by a concern for improving conditions and opportunities for women, with traditional hierarchic organizational structure. Feminist goals may be achieved through some of the efforts of such organizations, while such goals may or may not be their central focus. In this grouping, students have been assigned to a city government commission on the status of women (Georgia), a project for increasing access of women to management-level corporate jobs (Georgia), a recreation program for women prisoners (Michigan), and a home for pregnant teenagers (California); an assignment in an affirmative action office of a university, business or government agency would also fall into this grouping. It is interesting to note that in some instances, the type or content of the work has little bearing on the organization's place on the continuum. I have had contacts with different battered women's shelters, for example, which fit into each of the three categories--according to their organizational structure, their stated purpose, and their analysis of the problem they are working on or the services they offer. While organizations which fall anywhere on the continuum can offer students an opportunity to do feminist work, there is a unique learning opportunity available at placements in "radical feminist" settings. Here a student may also observe and participate in the process established by organizations whose structure is a non-hierarchical alternative to the "mainstream" projects or groups she's likely to participate in more frequently throughout her life. Feminist Perspective in a Non-Feminist Setting Because of my involvement in a campus-wide experiential education program which sends every student on six or more different field placements, I have given considerable thought and attention to the experience of feminist students who inevitably spend some of their coop quarters in entirely non-feminist settings. From my work with these students, I have concluded that field experiences which do not provide opportunities for feminist work can nevertheless serve as important sources for feminist education. Women's studies students can learn a great deal by applying tools of feminist observation and analysis to virtually any placement setting. I have developed several approaches to feminist learning in a non-feminist setting: analysis of sexism at the workplace and in the community, practice at implementing feminist change, and individual personal growth in feminist directions. I find that students can best take advantage of these suggestions if they have already had one or more women's studies courses--preferably at least one in the social sciences--and if they have been involved in some campus feminist activity, such as a consciousness-raising group or feminist organizing project. Analysis: At the worksite, students observe job categories among their co-workers, by whom (according to race, sex, class, age) they are filled and what the job descriptions are for each category. They can analyze how and by whom leadership is exerted, both formally and informally. They can examine sexism manifested in the social interactions among the workers as well as with clientele (students, customers, patients, clients, etc.). Next, students can look at the organization as a whole: the research institution or corporation, the library or museum, the factory, the hospital. They can investigate practices of hiring and promotion, examine methods of decision-making and who are the decision-makers. They can analyze what segments of the community the organization serves, and what, if any, discriminatory messages community members receive in their contact with the organization. Finally, students can observe the quality of life for women in the community where they are working and/or living, the availability of child care or women's health care, the safety measures needed and provided for women, and the resources available for women who have been beaten or raped. They can determine the degree to which the experiences and needs of women are reported in the local media, and consider the ways in which concerns of women are addressed through the elected political process. Practice: Students may also approach a field experience with the intention of implementing feminist goals in conjunction with the placement. They can prepare to try out non-sexist teaching methods and curriculum in a day care center, a high school, the waiting room of a pediatric hospital, or in an outdoor education center. They can develop theories and techniques for feminist counseling to apply in a counseling center, a welfare office or a residence for disturbed adolescents. They can plan to set up a consciousness- raising group among the women workers at a factory, the women graduate research assistants, or the teenagers who hang out at the community center after school. They might become a member of a committee setting up affirmative action guidelines for the organization or assisting with recruitment efforts. They might provide resources and impetus for employees of a corporation or factory to organize a day care center. Personal Growth: Students may want to devote time to their personal development during their field placement, either in association with the placement itself or during their hours after work. They might focus on practicing assertiveness skills with an aggressive supervisor or with co-workers. They can seek out opportunities on the job to learn new skills in areas usually considered "non-traditional" for women, such as carpentry, mechanical repair, budget design or procedures for running a board meeting. Students can also utilize a non-feminist placement, perhaps in comparison with a previous experience in a radical feminist organization, to help make decisions about how to approach their life work as feminists. In a non-feminist setting students may find themselves identified as the "company feminist" and can document their feelings and behaviors in response to representing, sometimes solely, that position. Conclusion My goal in this review of experiential opportunities for women's studies students in field placements outside the women's studies program has been several-fold. First to suggest to feminist experiential educators and placement professionals ways to address within their programs the needs of women's studies students. Second, to suggest to women's studies faculty ways to utilize the resources of existing field placement programs on their campuses to augment opportunities for their students to have feminist field experiences. Third, to show how field placements in non-feminist settings can yield opportunities for feminist learning and, in some cases, for implementing feminist social change. And finally, to suggest how experiential educators and women's studies faculty can expose students to principles of feminist life-planning--an issue which I consider essential to feminist education. I believe that the notion of a feminist field experience is absolutely consistent with the vision of a feminist academy. Nothing could be more appropriate for feminist students than learning about the experience of women by living and observing women's experiences in the workplace and by joining forces with community women to work on feminist issues affecting the quality of women's lives. Chapter 3: VARIOUS VIEWS SETTING THE STAGE FOR FIELD PLACEMENT Marti Bombyk (Special thanks to Elizabeth Axelson, Gloria Klose, Lorraine Lafata, and Catherine McClary, supervisors of students enrolled in "Women and the Community" at the University of Michigan, who provided valuable suggestions for this essay. I also appreciate the feedback on previous drafts from participants of the Service Learning Institute.) When a faculty member starts teaching a service learning course, it is easy to overlook the significant preparation that must take place before the course can officially begin. The challenge to create lectures, exercises, assignments, and discussion topics to help students analyze (among other things) their placement experiences, may focus instructor attention on the seminar component of the course. The seminar component can easily become a demanding endeavor in itself. Yet, there are several other tasks related to the placement site and student intern supervision which the faculty member must fulfill before the term begins in order to provide a well-run, comprehensive learning program for her students. Generating placements for student interns is one of the most challenging responsibilities for instructors teaching a service learning course. Like the designing of a course syllabus, the work takes place before the students arrive for their first class. Only the final step of this process is visible to the students, the point where they are given a list of internship possibilities from which to choose. Though much of the "stage setting" is invisible to the students, these tasks are fundamental to the whole course because they provide the platform for launching the students into the community and the world of work. From my experience teaching a service learning course, "Women and the Community," at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, and from constructive suggestions from supervisors who have worked with me and our students, I have put together some ideas for setting up placement sites and supporting the supervisor-student relationship. Hopefully, the procedures and strategies I have found most effective will be useful to other educators interested in generating field placements and accredited service learning at their schools. Setting Up Placements: Finding the Intersection When I develop placement sites, I consider three different sets of needs and interests: those of the community, those of the placement sponsors, and those of the students. In this balancing act, my goal is to find the intersection of these three need sets. (1) (figure on page 82 appears here) The Community's Needs and Interests I define the "community" as women who will benefit from the activities of the student interns. I consider the needs of women in my local area by taking into account both public identified needs and needs which have received little or no attention. My knowledge of identified and unrecognized needs stems from such ordinary daily experiences as reading newspapers, talking with women about the concerns of their lives, and walking the streets of my city. As I consider the needs of local women and placement opportunities which address those needs, I keep in mind Charlotte Bunch's five criteria for evaluating feminist reforms (2). Consideration of these criteria helps me think about the reforms that are needed by women and the ways in which these reforms should be implemented. Though any reform will not necessarily meet all five criteria, the greater a placement approximates one or more criteria, the more confident I am that it will empower the students as they work to empower other women: 1. Does the reform materially improve the lives of women, and if so,which women and how many? 2. Does it build an individual woman's self-respect, strength and confidence? 3. Does it give women a sense of power, strength, and imagination as a group and help build structures for further change? 4. Does it educate women politically, enhancing our ability to criticize and challenge the system in the future? 5. Does it weaken patriarchal control of society's institutions and help women gain power over them? (pp. 45-46) Organizations which work on relevant issues in ways which approximate these criteria, and which never oppose them, are more desirable as placement sites than organizations which do not. Selecting placement sites is a political act whereby instructors implicitly endorse the reform goals of those with whom the students work and learn from in their placements. Because of this, I attempt to put my "feminist politics in command" by arranging for students to help women in the community, who are in turn teaching their interns important skills. In this way, I am able to proudly take responsibility for the consequences of my work. The range of reform opportunities in a given locality varies from city to city. Not every city has a rich feminist infrastructure of crisis centers, bookstores, legal defense collectives, shelters, advocacy offices, etc. Fortunately, it isn't necessary to live in a feminist Utopia to find good placements. Most cities have organizations which may not be explicitly feminist but which nonetheless serve feminist goals. Day care centers are an example of this type of placement site. Most cities, in fact, have too many organizations which are in need of feminist reforms. Pat Miller at the University of Connecticut has successfully placed students in insurance companies with feminist supervisors who teach the students how to advocate for the women workers and help organize them. In my view, explicitly feminist organizations are a bonus; but a good analysis of women's oppression, a sense of strategies that might help local women, and imagination are the only prerequisites for developing placements in any city. The Placement Sponsors' Needs and Interests Placement sponsors appreciate the free labor that student interns supply, but often they impose requirements that student interns must meet in order to be placed with them. In my course, placement sponsors have made stipulations which include: good writing skills, public speaking skills, previous course work or experience in a particular area, ability to make an extended time commitment (six months to a year), access to transportation, ability to work certain shifts, etc. If an organization seems to be a good potential placement site, I determine if there are any prerequisites and make note of them. I include this information in the placement description list I give students to facilitate the student-placement site matching process by reducing the risk of misunderstanding, wasted time, and embarrassment. Finally, I also attempt to discern if a potential placement sponsor has what I consider to be less-than-honorable motives for wanting volunteer labor. My particular sensitivity to volunteers replacing paid employees and volunteer exploitation leads me to make a quick check of the way the potential sponsor intends to use volunteers and how they will be treated. I ask if a volunteer program exists in the organization (a moot question if the entire organization is volunteer staffed). If they have one, I ask how it is structured and the effect of the volunteer program on employee morale. I attempt to determine if there is excessive stratification and segregation between paid and unpaid workers. If the response to my questions indicates employee replacement or unfair practices toward volunteers, I reject the possibility of placing student interns at that site. The Students' Needs and Interests Since student interns are highly dependent on the placement organization for their educational experience, I consider the ability of the placement site to meet the following criteria: 1. Is there an individual at the placement site who will willingly assume the responsibility of providing supervision for the student interns? At a minimum, adequate supervision consists of the supervisor's readiness to share skills and have routine contact with the student interns. 2. What work will the interns be asked to do and what skills can they acquire? If challenging work is not provided, interns will not be able to develop new skills. Though work considered mundane, boring, or repetitive, (e.g., typing, filing, collating, stapling) is not easy to avoid, I feel it is essential that the proportion of time during which an intern engages in such work not exceed the proportion of time during which she will have exposure to new tasks and be involved in planning and decision-making. 3. Will the placement provide training for the student interns? If a placement site wants relatively unskilled interns to perform difficult and responsible tasks (e.g., counseling a rape victim), it must provide the intern with the expertise to do the job effectively. 4. How flexible is the placement for allowing individualized job descriptions? I assess this dimension because students want to know how much an internship with a placement sponsor can be individually tailored to their personal interests. 5. How stable is the placement site organization? This criterion is important because a placement site governed by crises can place too much stress on both supervisors and student interns. New organizations are not necessarily "unstable." As long as an organization has adequate resources and realistic goals, it can usually provide students with a secure work place environment. I am primarily concerned with avoiding placements where "organizational craziness" is the norm because I have found that these contexts teach students how not to do a feminist reform. Such truncation of experience is never satisfying for my students. Negotiating the Placements With my criteria in mind for how I will find the intersection of the community's, placement sponsors', and student interns' needs, I begin contacting potential placement sponsors to negotiate placements. I find this phase of the work to be the most enjoyable because it allows me to exercise and expand my professional and personal network. Sometimes I am able to discover a new placement site that gives me the reassuring and recurring pleasure in knowing that "we are everywhere!" My goal in this phase is to create as many placement opportunities as possible in the time available. My motto is "the more, the better" because student preferential differences can be better accommodated with more placement opportunities and because with many opportunities, I can be more selective when I narrow down and finalize my placement description list. I have generated placement leads from reading women's referral guides, brochures, and handouts available at special events and in university and community offices. I've looked in the telephone book, especially under "W" for women's organizations and services. I've talked with colleagues, students, and friends who are affiliated with organizations which might meet my criteria. Especially helpful have been conversations with community activists who provide me with oral "Who's Who" directories of individuals and organizations working on feminist reforms. I have also contacted the local chapters of national organizations such as the National Organization of Women and the National Abortion Rights Action League. Not only can these chapters serve as placement sites, they can also refer me to other promising organizations. With each contact and confirmed placement, I always ask if they know someone else who could sponsor placements and if I can use the individual's name as a referral source. I continue to network until all leads have been exhausted or until I begin to get a sense of diminishing returns (it takes more and more effort to negotiate each placement). My goals during each contact are: 1. To give necessary information about the course and its methods so that interest can be generated in sponsoring a placement and so that, once interested, the site has a sense of what will be expected of them if they sponsor an internship. 2. To explore the degree to which the potential placement satisfies criteria I have developed for deciding whether an organization is suitable as a placement site. 3. To determine supervisor/organizational receptivity to sponsoring a placement. 4. To gather basic information about what a placement with an organization would involve, the names, phone numbers, and addresses of people students should contact, and any prerequisites the organization has. When I talk with potential placement sponsors, I've found it helpful to be friendly and not too aggressive about getting an immediate commitment from the organization. The format I tend to adopt in my "sales pitch" is to tell the person my name, my position at the university, how I got their name, general goals and methods of the course I teach and why I thought their organization might be suitable for and interested in sponsoring interns. I might give an example of other organizations which have agreed to sponsor interns and the kind of work the placements with them will entail. I let the person on the phone have time to think and I encourage her or him to ask questions. I offer to call back if they need time to check with others in the organization before they make a commitment. Once they decide to offer a placement, I attempt to clarify the nature of the relationship between myself, the students, and the placement site. I let them know what the next steps are, for example, when they can expect interested students to begin contacting them for interviews and setting up the placement. I also tell them that if students decide to work with them (leaving open the possibility that though they may offer a placement, no student might actually choose it), I will send a handout to the intern's supervisor that describes in more detail how the course will work and what can be expected throughout the semester. I point out to them that in their interviews with prospective student interns, they have the right to tactfully reject a student if they don't feel the relationship would be viable. With the final list of placement sponsors generated, I turn my attention to preparing a lengthy description of all the placement opportunities to handout to students on the first day of class. Preparing Students for their Placements On the first day of class I give my students a course description, a syllabus, and the placement description list. The focus of the first session is on the placements though we also take time to review the syllabus, course requirements, and to introduce ourselves to each other. I go over the placements with them and answer questions about the field work and how placements can be structured. Their assignment for the first week is: 1. Consider your goals for taking the course. Think of what you want from the course as you look over the placement opportunities. Do you want work experience in your preferred field? Do you want to explore a new field to see if you might choose it as an occupation? Do you need particular skills? Is there a feminist issue that arouses your anger that you want to do something about to help women? 2. Select two or three placement offerings to explore based on your goals and interests. Contact the preferred placements using information provided in the placement description lists. Arrange an in person interview (if possible, or at a minimum, a telephone interview) with the placement sponsor and attempt to finalize your placement choice by the next class. I tell the students that both they and the placement sponsors have the right to reject each other if either party considers the match as problematic. Students are fearful of being rejected so I try to assure them that if it does happen, it isn't the end of the world and that it is probably better to be turned down and find a different placement than to work somewhere where they don't feel welcome or appreciated. It's useful to conceptualize the process of finding a placement as similar to the process of looking for a job. They go through the want ads, prioritize their preferences, arrange an interview, find out if they are wanted, and, if there are two or more offers, they get to choose where they think they will be happiest working. Likewise, if they are turned down for a placement, the experience resembles being turned down for a job (a difficult yet common experience we all have to learn to deal with sooner or later). However, I have found it unusual for students to be rejected if prerequisites have been made clear; their interest in and enthusiasm for these self-selected preferences make a good match between the student and the placement site probable. After their interviews, students should make arrangements for finding out if they are accepted by the placement sponsor, they should make their decisions on where they want to work, and they should make arrangements for their first session at the placement site. Most students are successful in arranging their placement in one week, even if they require individual consultation with me by telephone or in office hours. Undoubtedly, though, there are always a few students who have not, for various legitimate reasons, arranged their placement by the second week of class. For this reason, I do not begin the seminar component of the course until the third week. For the second class session, we continue to get to know each other and I work on building group cohesiveness to set the stage for the seminar component of the course. One exercise I use for the second week both builds group cohesiveness for the seminar and further prepares the students to begin their placements. I use this exercise after we have gone around the room reminding each other of our names and reporting on whether their placement has been chosen, if so, where it is and, if not, what options they are still exploring, etc. I call this exercise "My Greatest Fear." It works like this: Divide the class into groups of five or six, and if there is space, have the groups go to separate rooms after the exercise is described. I tell the students to take out a scrap of paper and jot down, anonymously, their greatest fear (no matter how irrational) about working as an intern or at the particular placement they have chosen. When they are settled in their groups and have written down their greatest fears, I go to each group, collect the folded papers, mix them, and then let each student in the group draw someone else's greatest fear. Then, taking turns, each student (except those who were so confident they couldn't write down a single fear) draws someone else's greatest fear. Taking turns, each student reads aloud the anonymous statement. Sometimes the idiosyncracy of it gives the writer's identity away, but secrecy is not a big issue. Then the reader addresses the fear by providing some reassuring advice on how to view the problem, how to redefine it, how to handle it, etc. When the reader finishes, other students can join in and share their insights and suggestions for dealing with that fear. I avoid participating unless the advice (it's happened only once) was exceptionally superficial and did not respond to the writer's dilemma. It is important that I do not participate so the students learn to talk to each other and to respect each other's knowledge and contributions. And so, each student will have, by the end of the exercise, some suggestions for dealing with her fear and will also have experienced her own competency by coming up with some concrete advice to help another. I have found the quality of the advice be considerate, wise, and practical. The students learn a lot from hearing others' concerns, some of which might have been their second or third greatest fear. At the end of the exercise, anxiety is greatly diminished, self-esteem is bolstered, and the students feel cared for and caring towards each other. By the third week virtually all the students are placed into organizations and many have worked there at least once. The seminar begins with the topic of volunteerism. We discuss assigned readings and I give them the following journal assignment to help sensitize them to the various feminist perspectives on volunteerism and to help them realize that their volunteer relationship to their placement is a two-way proposition involving give and take for both parties: Critically analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the 1973 N.O.W. position on volunteerism (3). Next, analyze your role as a volunteer with regard to <1> its compatibility with the N.O.W. position, <2> what benefits you will gain by volunteering, <3> what costs or losses you will incur by volunteering, <4> what your placement site gains from your volunteerism, and <5> what are the costs to the placement site for having you work with them. Finally, I tell the students to negotiate a job description with their supervisor in the next two weeks and I give them written guidelines. Supervisors also receive job description guidelines in the handout they are sent. I emphasize the importance of clear expectations and open communication. I remind them that the supervisor is in that role in order to teach them skills and to help them, so they should always try to discuss problems with her as they arise. For the remainder of the term. I focus my efforts primarily on the seminar component of the course. I have individual appointments with each student twice during the semester. I also attempt to call each supervisor at least once during the semester to check on how things are going with the student interns. Conclusion The placements I have generated and my procedures for supporting the supervisor-student intern relationship have helped me run a smooth course which both placement sites and student interns have enjoyed. My intention is that this description of my approach will facilitate the work of others who are setting up a service learning course at their institutions. Though a considerable amount of time is needed to prepare students and supervisors, the time spent will help spare everyone a considerable amount of frustration and resentment. In the long run, advance preparation and planning makes everyone's work easier and more satisfying. NOTES 1. Alana Smart, National Center for Service Learning. Presentation at NWSA/FIPSE "Project to Improve Service Learning in Women's Studies" Institute, March 1930. 2. Bunch, Charlotte. "The Reform Tool Kit," Quest 1 (1), 1974, 37-87. 3. N.O.W. Task Force on Volunteerism, November 1973. Ms., February 1975, P. 73 APPENDIX Format for a Field Supervisor Manual I am including here an outline that abstracts the types of information instructors might include in a handout or manual adapted for the specific type of course they teach. The furnishing of written materials is important for several reasons: 1. It provides a permanent reference that can be consulted anytime without the supervisor having to contact the instructor. 2. Supervisors need certain information in order to fulfill their basic responsibilities, e.g., what criteria they will use to evaluate the students' work. 3. The more information about what the internship is and how it can work, the better prepared supervisors are for giving interns worthwhile experiences. 4. It indicates that you are seriously committed to giving the students quality education. Before discussing the content of the handout or manual, a word about "packaging" is in order. The information instructors provide is best taken when it is written, organized, and typed in a readable form that avoids academic jargon. Ideally, we want supervisors to read the whole piece in their spare (???) time. The handout should be reproduced as a clean, dark copy and, if possible, put in a folder of some sort to protect it. Be sure to prepare enough copies for each supervisor (only one is needed even if they have more than one intern) and make extras in case some get lost. Keep the original copy for simplified updating and revising in the future. The following outline can be adapted to the particular needs of the instructor, depending on the nature of the course, the number of supervisors, and time and resources available. I have attempted to be comprehensive, though different parts may be more relevant for different instructors: I. Title Page: title of handout, name of course, instructor's name, office address, and phone number(s). II. Table of Contents: include appendices titles and page numbers, if any. III. Course Description A. Goals and pedagogical philosophy of feminist experiential education. (You might also include here a brief description of your women's studies program for people who may not be familiar with its purpose and functions). B. How the Course Works 1. Placement: types and criteria for selection 2. Seminar: sample topics, time and place 3. Instructor-student contact: frequency of individual appointments, etc. C. Student Requirements 1. Number of hours per week in placement 2. Course grading system, including the type of placement evaluations and the weight of the placement evaluations in the students' final grades D. Calendar 1. When students begin and end work 2. Due dates for assignments that might involve additional supervisory time, e.g., discussing with the student the history of the organization. E. Reference to Appendices: you might include the following: 1. Course syllabus 2. Copy of evaluation forms supervisor will receive and be asked to complete 3. Copy of any assignments that might require additional supervisory-student interaction IV. The Supervisor-Intern Relationship A. Describe the process of how students get matched with placements, including interviews and the supervisors' right to reject students who might not be suited to the placement. B. Describe the supervisors' responsibility to orient the student to the placement, including: 1. Goals and purpose of organization 2. General way the organization works, e.g., who does what, why, when, and how. 3. Organizational policies and rules which will apply to interns, e.g., confidentiality of clients, washing out their used coffee cups. 4. If possible, the supervisor might prepare a handout that covers the major points the student needs to know about the organization. This could be used over again for future interns to help streamline the orientation process. C. Describe the responsibility of the supervisors to negotiate a job description and written agreement that explicates both parties' rights and responsibilities, including: 1. Type of training and dates, length of period. 2. Specific tasks they will do, including how much clerical work. 3. Frequency of meetings with interns. 4. Expected time commitments and days/hours the student will work. 5. Date(s) the job description will be reviewed and revised, if necessary (e.g., half-way point). 6. The days the student will be on vacation and what procedures they should follow if they are unable to make it to work when expected. 7. Other concerns they may have that they would like clarified. D. Emphasize the importance of open communication with the student that can be informal and "on the run" as well as formal. Supervisors should attempt to create a non-threatening and supportive relationship so that students will feel comfortable initiating discussions with them about their concerns, mistakes, frustrations, observations, etc. E. Discuss the need for supervisors to be sensitive and respectful of individual differences among students--some will be assertive and self-directing, others will be shy and need more structure, etc. F. Discuss the students' needs for constructive feedback and thanks for the work they do. G. Reiterate how important the supervisor is in providing a role model for the students. The interns will be affected by their attitudes toward their work and the organization, their values, how they deal with other co-workers, etc. The placement offers the students a stepping stone in the formation and attainment of their career goals and through it they will be socialized into the world of working with others. They are trying to acquire practical skills that will help them get and keep jobs and, hopefully, make a contribution to the improvement of other women's lives. The supervisor needs to be conscious that she is being a teacher and has the power to empower her interns. V. The Supervisor-Instructor Relationship A. How often they can expect you to initiate contact with them to see how things are going. B. Discuss how the relationship is designed to benefit both the students and the supervisors/organizations. When the costs outweigh the benefits, it is essential that problems be addressed together and an effort made to solve them. They should contact you if any problem arises (before it becomes catastrophic) and assure them that you are willing to do what you can to solve the problem, mediate, etc. C. Benefits the supervisor might receive if any. For example, can supervisors get some staff privileges through your university such as a library card? If material rewards are not possible to offer (and it is often the case that they aren't), you might discuss how the contact provided with the internship can be used to further their organizational or personal goals,e.g., the women's studies program can announce and help advertise events sponsored by the placement, or job openings in the organization. The program might be able to provide referrals, contacts, and information to the organization. The program could offer support in times of crisis, e.g., letters of endorsement, petition signatures, fundraising help. You might so arrange that announcements or flyers from the women's studies office be sent to the supervisors so that they will know about speakers the program is bringing, classes being offered, etc. D. Give sincere and appreciative thanks to the supervisor and the organization for participating in the internship. NOTES If the supervisor will be working with more than one student, recommend that they arrange such discussions in groups to save time. Or one student can share her information with the others. THE INTERNSHIP PROGRAM AT WEAL FUND Maxine Forman "I wish it were felt that women who are labouring especially for women are not one-sided or selfish...We care for the evils affecting women most of all because they react upon the whole society, and abstract from the common good." Josephine E. Butler, ed., Introduction, Woman's Work and Woman's Culture, 1896 The Women's Equity Action League Educational and Legal Defense Fund in Washington, D.C. is a non-profit tax-exempt organization whose goal is to secure legal and economic rights for women by conducting educational and research projects, by monitoring the implementation and enforcement of laws prohibiting sex discrimination, and by supporting significant legal cases. The intern program of WEAL Fund, sponsored by the Ford Foundation in 1976, invites students and other individuals to work with us for a period of several months to see, first hand, the kind of work a women's rights organization does. As auxiliary workers, interns help the Fund fulfill its goals while they learn about the administration and staffing of an organization, improve their research and writing skills, increase their understanding of women's issues and feminism, acquire work experience, and gain new perspectives on the process of social change. Since 1976 approximately 180 interns from throughout the nation, ranging in age from 15 to 70, have participated in the program. The majority are voluntary interns who receive $4 a day to help defray the costs of volunteering; some receive academic credit from their university or college as well. Voluntary interns spend two-thirds of their time on a research project and the remainder on administrative and clerical duties. The administrative internship, a paid position, is usually reserved for an older woman returning to the work force; she spends the major portion of her time on administrative and clerical tasks, and a smaller portion on a special project. The legal internship, also a paid position, is offered to a second or third year law student who helps the staff provide information and referral services to those requesting it, assists in the preparation of materials informing women of their rights, updates and maintains the docket of legal cases supported by WEAL Fund and assists in efforts to monitor regulatory developments. Who Are the Interns? "Interns are more trouble than they're worth." No doubt you have heard that statement at least once. I have said it myself at times when there was unusual pressure to produce under rigid and difficult deadlines. In such instances one would like interns to be better than bright, have extensive work experience, possess top notch research and writing skills, require no supervision, type 65-100 words per minute and ask few questions--in short, to function like competent and experienced staff members. And sometimes we are pleasantly surprised. But common sense dictates that few individuals seeking experiential learning opportunities have such qualifications. Fortunately, WEAL Fund's philosophy and flexibility allow staff to choose some interns who may have more energy than experience and more commitment than skills. Although we give priority to individuals who have leadership potential, research and writing skills, and background in women's issues, we select interns who come from various educational experiences and backgrounds, with not only different levels of skills but also varying levels of commitment to the women's movement. We subscribe to the notion that if one scratches a woman one will discover a feminist underneath, and structure interviews with an eye (or shall I say a finger nail) toward discovery. For example, while some applicants are experienced feminists and advocates, others are simply enthusiastic learners with good skills who think that the concerns of women can be reduced to "equal pay for equal work." Sometimes an applicant will emphasize that she herself has never experienced sex discrimination, but then goes on to reveal, unwittingly, instances in which she was in fact a victim of sex bias. In such cases we usually welcome the opportunity to raise a consciousness, offer the internship and make special efforts to provide the intern with every chance to learn how sex bias and discrimination operate. As one might expect, these individuals are often more profoundly affected by the internship than those who came with a feminist perspective. Most of WEAL Fund interns are students, but some are career changers, women returning to the work force, job hunters or retired people. Their academic and employment backgrounds span fields from music to psychiatric nursing; their goals range from making a contribution to society to seeking a different perspective on work to gaining recent job experience and new data for a 10-year-old resume. What WEAL Fund interns have in common, however, is the ability to communicate their interest in women's rights and the Fund's work, a desire to improve their present skills and learn new ones, the ability to write concisely and clearly or the desire to develop this skill, the willingness to commit 15-35 hours a week over a three month period and, most importantly, the potential to use this experience to promote positive change in their own lives and communities, or on their campuses. Learning and Making a Contribution The intern program is an integral part of WEAL Fund. After a two day orientation led by the staff, interns select an investigative project in one of WEAL Fund's areas of concern. These include educational policy, employment discrimination, women and sports, women in the military, women's access to fellowships and training and the economic problems of older women. Under the supervision of a staff member interns do basic research for developing and updating kits and publications, learn to respond to requests for information, and assist staff members in project and administrative work. The supervisor meets periodically with the intern to review project work and to revise, if necessary, the job description and its goals and objectives, both of which were jointly developed during the first week. WEAL Fund views the supervisor as a facilitator who can help bring the research project to life by explaining its rationale and potential, and who can help the intern use there sources of the Fund as well as of other organizations and agencies in the Washington, D.C. area. Although project deadlines and meeting times are mutually agreed upon by intern and the supervisor, the intern sets her own priorities and manages her time so that she can complete her project work and also take advantage of other opportunities the program offers. These include brown-bag lunches on women's issues with invited guest speakers as well as out-side meetings, hearings and conferences. Attending these events provides opportunities for interns to gain knowledge and to understand how strategies are developed, how decisions are made and how leadership styles differ. For example, interns attending a meeting at the Pentagon could observe the leader of a coalition of women's organizations change the rules at a briefing in which coalition members were supposed to sit passively and listen to information prepared for them, a singular lesson in both leadership and assertiveness. Similarly, an intern accompanying a staff member to meetings of the National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education broadens her understanding of educational equity issues, group dynamics and strategies for changing policies. It is somewhat unrealistic to work with an organization for a brief period of time and expect to make a substantial contribution to its work. Nevertheless, this is the expectation of many interns. We try to emphasize that contributions are made in many different ways. Initiating a new project, building upon, or completing one already developed, are all ways to contribute. In each case, staff members help the intern structure a project that can be completed within a short time, with the understanding that the resulting product may or may not be published, but will be used as the basis for further work on the issue. Examples of past intern projects include: - developing a brief paper on women and social security and analyzing proposals for reform; - researching the status of women in higher education and updating WEAL Fund's paper, Facts on Women in Higher Education; - developing comments on equal opportunity guidelines set forth by the National Endowment for the Arts; - developing and publicizing a brief report which focused attention on the employment of women scientists and engineers at 50 leading colleges and universities; - reviewing stacks of Title IX complaints submitted to the United States Office for Civil Rights to assess the quality of their resolution (a joint project with the National Education Association); - analyzing public comments on proposed Title IX Athletic Guidelines to determine public sentiment (a joint project with the National Advisory Council on Women's Educational Programs); - collecting, preserving and making available for study the personal papers of Black women, the records of Black women's organizations and other materials documenting the history of Black women in the U.S. (a joint project with the National Archives for Black Women's History); - developing a paper on women, registration and the draft for inclusion in WEAL Fund's Women and the Military kit; - developing a paper on financial aid opportunities for older women who are seeking education and training to reenter the work force; - researching the status of women as fellowship winners and review panelists at the National Endowments for the Arts and the Humanities as well as at other fellowship programs; and - assisting WEAL Fund's SPRINT project staff in research and answering requests for information on Title IX and sports. In addition to work on an individual project, each intern contributes to the organization as Intern of the Day, spending a portion of her time every week assisting staff members with typing labels, xeroxing, collating, filing or preparing mailings. This assignment gives the intern a glimpse into the importance of "women's work" as well as insight into the concept of equal pay for work of equal value. Recently staff and interns found an unexpected opportunity to make a contribution to the Fund. In less than a week's time, they planned and executed a large reception to honor Elizabeth Janeway on the publication of her new book, Powers of the Weak. Without the help of interns in developing mailing lists, preparing invitations, making follow-up phone calls to invitees, contacting the press, and hosting the reception itself, the event probably would not have been the success that it was. What the Interns Take with Them While each of the 180 individuals has had a different experience, discussions with interns reveal a number of recurring themes. First, interns are impressed by the organization's struggle simply to stay alive, both financially and ideologically, at a time when funding is scarce and the country is leaning toward conservatism; proposal writing, direct mail campaigns and other fund-raising activities rarely fit into an intern's prior conceptions of the work of a women's organization. Second, interns are amazed at the amount of nitty-gritty support activities necessary to maintain a productive, visible organization; they learn that stuffing envelopes, typing, xeroxing, filing, recording contributions and sending out thank-you notes, and sorting and routing mail--simply managing an office and staff efficiently--are critical tasks. Third, interns begin to develop an understanding of the legislative and regulatory process, as well as an appreciation of how slowly goes the process of change; so many interns come to Washington in awe of the power of the Office of Civil Rights (OCR), e.g., and leave in awe of the power and persistence of the groups who exert pressure on OCR to enforce anti-discrimination legislation that has been so long in coming and is in such constant danger of being eroded. Fourth, and perhaps most significant: many interns emphasize that they never before had the opportunity to work so closely with women, especially in an all women's organization where they are in a position of authority. Interns take with them a healthy respect for the power that results from the information sharing, networking and strategizing that are so much a part of the way Washington women's organizations have an impact on public policy. One concern, however, that is often expressed by interns is how they will react to the sexism they will undoubtedly encounter when they return to their campuses or to a job which is not concerned with feminist issues. Some fear they will find it difficult to handle; they had lost touch with the "real world" feeling protected in an organization staffed almost entirely with women whose primary goal at work, and often during leisure time, is to secure equal rights for women. They wonder if they will be able to change conservative attitudes. Other interns, however, feel strengthened by the support they found in the experience. They leave WEAL Fund armed with new documentation, facts, statistics, and ideas--ready to wage battle with any and all enemies of the cause--or at least eager to engage a skeptic in animated debate. In any event, interns find the experience a valuable one. A former intern expressed it well: I realize that having interns can sometimes be disruptive to a functioning staff, but am glad that you feel the inconvenience is worth the effort. Working at WEAL Fund has raised my expectations of myself. Time and effort are conducive to achievement. Thank you for a very valuable learning experience. STUDENT IMPACT IN TWO COMMUNITY SETTINGS I. THE INVISIBLE WOMEN Carolyn Mulford (This article originally appeared in "Synergist", Journal of ACTION's National Student Volunteer Program, Spring 1980, Vol. 9, No. 1, and is reprinted with permission.) As the police car turned into the alley a figure hunched down behind an open garbage can. "Pull over, Susie," said the passenger to his partner. "I just saw one of the bag ladies at the back of that restaurant. She'll freeze if she stays out on a night like this." "Let me handle it," said Susie as she stopped the police car. "She's more likely to listen to another woman." She stepped out and called, "Got a problem, lady?" Clasping the garbage can for support, a woman on the far side of middle age pulled herself up. "Just out for a walk," she said with dignity. "Thought you were some hoodlums. That's why I hid." "It's pretty cold tonight, almost zero with the wind factor. We'll give you a ride home." "Thank you, but I need the exercise." She shivered. "I can't leave you here," the officer said gently but firmly. "I ain't breaking no law." "It's got nothing to do with the law. You haven't got any place to go, have you?" "I'm no vagrant. I've worked all my life," said the woman proudly. Her voice faltered. "I just don't see how this could happen to me." The officer opened the back door. "Come on, we'll take you - " "Not the crazy house!" cried the woman, shrinking back. "Course not. It's a place where you'll be warm and welcome, but you'll have to work." She took the woman by the arm and propelled her to the car. "They'll help you get back on your feet." A few minutes later Susie drove up to an old brick school building. "This is it, the Madison Center, part of the House of Ruth." * * * * * * * * * * The night resident finished binding the young mother's two broken ribs. Glancing at the two preschool youngsters and baby asleep in one chair, he asked softly, "What do you plan to do now? Will you call the police?" The woman shook her head. "It was just an accident. I fell downstairs." "I suppose you got those bruises on your cheek from running into a door last week. Mrs. Smith, these beatings will get worse. You must do something to protect yourself - and your children." She gulped. "What can I do? I have no family within 1,000 miles, no friends who live where he couldn't find me, no money. I left the house in my gown after he fell asleep because I couldn't stand the pain any more." She wiped away tears. "You tell me where I can find food and shelter for me and my children with no money, no job, not even any work experience. I've barely got the cab fare to get back home." "There's a place I know about. We refer someone like you to them two or three times a month. You get dressed while a nurse makes a phone call." Half an hour later, the woman gave her last cent to the cab driver who had taken her to a large, somewhat decrepit house on a side street in an inner city neighborhood. He didn't growl about the smallness of the tip. Instead he said, "Good luck, lady. You listen to them folks in there. This shelter is supposed to be secret, but you aren't the first woman and kids I brought here in the middle of the night. Lots of folks got trouble bad as yours, and the House of Ruth helps them - long as they are ready to help themselves." * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Seven blocks from the Capitol, a car moved slowly down busy Massachusetts Avenue in the early morning rush hour. The driver pulled over, jumped out of the car, ran around it, and took two large suitcases from the back seat. He opened the front door. "Come on, Mother. Get out." "I want to go home." "You can't. We're leaving for Hawaii in three hours and we won't be back for two weeks. Now get out!" "I can stay by myself." "And start another fire? The whole house could have burned down without you waking up." He sighed. "It's not a nursing home or a hospital." He reached around her thin shoulder and tugged her from the car. "Doris found out all about the House of Ruth when she gave them that bunch of old clothes. It's a nice place." She clung to him. "It's for people who've got nobody." He jerked away. "I'll check on you in a month." She sank on to a suitcase as the car sped away. She didn't move until a young woman came out of a huge old brick house and approached her. The old woman stood up. "I have no son. I have nobody. But I can still knit." The younger woman picked up a suitcase. THE HOUSE OF RUTH Scenes like the preceding occur daily throughout the nation, but frequently penniless, battered, and unwanted women have no shelter to go to. The House of Ruth grew out of the recognition of the unmet needs of a growing number (currently about 5,000) of homeless and destitute women in Washington, D.C. Founded four years ago by a former sociology professor, the House of Ruth is a nonprofit organization that provides shelter and sustenance, support and counseling, referral and information to women who have no other source of assistance. Its three sections are the headquarters and residence (capacity: 35), the Madison Center (capacity: 65), and the shelter for battered women and their children (capacity: 12). Reflecting the District's population pattern, approximately 80 percent of those who come to the House of Ruth are black. Students, from grade school to graduate school, have contributed significantly to the shelters' operation from the beginning. A brief history of the House of Ruth illustrates the pragmatic philosophy underpinning its operation, the need and potential for replication by small but determined bands in other parts of the country, and the suitability of such shelters for service-learning experiences for students of all ages and interests. It began in the early 1970's when Veronica Maz, a Georgetown University sociology professor, helped organize a soup kitchen called So Others Might Eat (SOME). She soon saw that homeless men had places to go at night, but such charitable institutions as the Salvation Army and gospel missions had few places for women. The women who came to the soup kitchen spent the night in the parks, the railway station, the bus station, doorways, unlocked cars, wherever they could find a spot. To most of the population, and to virtually all the social service agencies, they were invisible. Caught in an increasingly vicious cycle of dirt and dissolution, most found it harder and harder to combat the causes that had started the downswing. The women were of all ages, races, religions, and social classes. They had an infinite number of stories to tell - an expensive car repair while moving somewhere to take a new job, the death of a breadwinner after a bank-breaking illness, eviction leaving them with no place to live, flight from an abusive relative or mate, release from a public hospital or from jail, computer or bureaucratic foul-ups delaying retirement, unemployment, or public assistance checks. For some women, the problem was short term, its solution awaiting the arrival of assistance from family or friends. They simply had to survive a few days. For others, the problem dominated the future as well as the present, its solution not even envisioned. The women had in common immediate basic needs - food, shelter, friendship. In large part they were the victims of a changing society in which family and friends cannot be taken for granted, in which caring for the unfortunate is seen as a public rather than a personal concern. Committing all her time, Dr. Maz organized Shalom House, which had a capacity of nine. She recalls, "That is where we learned from practical experience that we needed a larger place. You have to start with a small place to get the experience." The next step was to search for a bigger house. Dr. Maz walked the streets of the inner city looking for something suitable. She saw "For Sale" on an old tourist home midway between the train station and the bus station (two favorite hangouts of the homeless) and knocked on the door. The owner told her she would rent her the house for $440 a month. At the time Dr. Maz had $1, but she raised the $440 from individuals in less than two weeks. She moved in with 12 women who had been living in a nearby park - and had to find food for the next meal. And they did, by going to individuals, Catholic nuns who had some leftovers, and a Safeway manager with food that would have been thrown away. GLEANING FOR SURVIVAL The former tourist home became the House of Ruth and remains its head-quarters as well as a shelter. Its name is derived from the Biblical story of Ruth, a young widow who supported herself and her widowed mother-in-law by gathering the grain missed by harvesters. Dr. Maz is a gleaner par excellence, it is part of her philosophy and her mode of operation, and she believes that others can start shelters by adapting her techniques. One of her basic tenets is: "You always deal with individuals, not with groups. You can deal with a group after you are organized and established. Groups deal with groups." Another is: "Start with what you have. You don't need enough money for a year to open a shelter. After all, you don't wait until you've saved a year's rent to lease an apartment." Still another: "You start in their community. The ghetto has its own communication system. People tell people. If we started giving sandwiches out - which we wouldn't do - at 10:15, by noon we would have 200 people in line." Giving things away is not part of the House of Ruth philosophy. Those who come to it share the responsibility for the shelter - cooking cleaning, maintenance - and must take action, in so far as they are capable, to find a home, a job, a training program, or whatever assistance they need. Those who do nothing because they are unwilling to exert any effort find themselves back in the park. Those who do nothing because they are unable to function are referred to the proper agency and receive assistance in getting that agency to take action. Everyone must obey certain basic rules, such as no drinking or drugs, no coming in after 11 p.m. curfew, and no violence. The police not only bring women to the House of Ruth but also take them away. Before the House of Ruth accepts a woman, a screener determines that she has no other alternatives - family or friends or public assistance. At head-quarters and Madison Center, the women have three days to work out a plan of action with the social workers and counselors. This may mean applying for a training program, public assistance, or a job; contacting relatives or friends who could provide cash or a place to live; entering a drug abuse program; or anything else that may lead to self-sufficiency. While waiting for responses (which may require weeks rather than days) the women help operate the shelter and participate in its numerous activities - workshops, physical examinations, counseling. Improving personal hygiene and appearance frequently are the first priorities for the homeless. Hot showers, delousing, and clean clothes - donated by the community or made to order by residents or volunteers - improve both the self-image and the reception given the women by social service agencies or potential employers. The battered women with children have different priorities and problems. They face possible bodily harm and may be taking criminal or civil action against husbands. They also must support - emotionally and financially - others as well as themselves. Currently, the shelter for these women permits them to stay up to a month, though the social worker in charge, Cookie Wheeler, hopes to extend the residential period to six weeks. She also attaches great importance to continuing assistance after they leave and advocates establishing second-stage housing for small groups of former shelter residents so that they may be mutually supportive. All the shelters continue to be a resource for those who have come and gone, and the Madison Center is striving to become a genuine multiservice center for the women of the surrounding low-income community. PEOPLE HELPING PEOPLE The aim of all the assistance given - by staff composed mostly of social workers and former destitute women, by student and community volunteers, by the residents - is to enable the individual to meet her needs. Dr. Maz says, "Homeless and destitute women are people no one wants. They are lonely, so you have to deal with loneliness. If you don't deal with this, you cannot do anything. Having dealt with the loneliness, our goal is to help her find some sort of economic security and comfortable housing." Wheeler makes a similar statement about the battered woman with children. "She needs someone to get irate with her, to be on her side, to unload to, to teach her to trust again, to go out to lunch with away from the kids, just to be there." Because of the necessity of one-to-one attention to emotional needs and only slightly less intensive attention to economic security, student and community volunteers' involvement is essential. The volunteers function as part of the House, not as aloof angels of mercy or as detached observers. In discussing two Georgetown University students who were spending the summer gathering statistics on the homeless and abused, Dr. Maz commented, "If they are going to do research, they have to be part of the woodwork. They do everything, such as going to the hospital with a woman on a bus. You talk to people as you do things with them. Immediately you get involved in service here because it's all we are. It is our philosophy that it is a work-oriented program, people helping people. We need friends, not psychiatrists." Services are personal, not institutional. One graduate student began her service-learning experience by managing the laundry room and talking informally (mostly listening) to the women who came there. With this experience to lean on and to break down her own shyness, she became an official counselor to whom the women would be directed. And they still came to her informally. The residents receive support from others in everything they do to put their lives in order. This ranges from having a high school student's hand to hold at free dental clinic to having a law student whisper encouragement at a hearing charging a husband with assault and battery. Dr. Maz is enthusiastic about all students' participation, but she feels children have something special to offer - an unbiased view of the residents. When she first moved into the former tourist home, her gleanings included a class of seventh graders ready and willing to help with the clean-up and modest decorating. They worked alongside the residents, relating to them easily. "They dealt more with the women than the college students do because they are not afraid of them. The college students see themselves apart from the homeless and destitute. Because they are educated, they think it could not happen to them, but the younger ones see the person as a totality." Generally students rather than teachers initiate the involvement. The former sociology professor says, "Professors still teach in a vacuum. The problem is that most professors don't have any experience in this area at all, and few understand that students need a formalized structure for their learning experience." The House of Ruth provides some of this structure - a training and orientation program, supervision, introduction to all facets of the operation. For students and professors who request it, staff members also prepare evaluations, advise on and provide material for papers, give conference time and counseling. The director of the shelter for battered women with children remembers the importance to her of her service-learning experience. "I was panting to get out of the classroom. What made it exciting for me was not the teacher, although she was encouraging and accommodating, but the social worker and the freedom she allowed me." Most of Wheeler's supervisory experiences are positive, though students receive higher marks than the professors. Examples of student contributions to the shelter for battered women include: - Students from Walt Whitman High School, Bethesda, Maryland, surveying rental agencies to determine who would accept women with children and women on public assistance; - A Senior majoring in government at Mt. Vernon College acting as advocate for women seeking Medicaid, trying to get their children into day care centers, applying for public assistance (Wheeler says, "She was aghast at seeing how the government operates. As the result of having been here she knows much more about what she wants to do in government."); - A (Capuchin) seminarian from Washington Theological Union counseling children he termed "blatantly violent" and battered mothers who tended to be in turn seductive, motherly, and finally friendly; - Antioch Law School second- and third-year students acting as victim advocates (Wheeler points out, "When the case goes to the grand jury, he comes in with an entourage, but she has not told a soul. She has not told her brothers because she is afraid they would kill him. She has not told her friends because she could not face them. Without an advocate from here, she goes alone."); - Students in the Social Action Program of the Stone Ridge Country Day School of the Sacred Heart, Rockville, Maryland, caring for the children. Wheeler would like to have students to assist in a multitude of other ways, including planning menus and buying or obtaining food, picking out the better dresses from those contributed for the thrift shop and setting up a designer thrift shop; advising on starting small business or cottage industry; setting up second-stage housing for residents who have left the shelter; repairing and maintaining the house; writing and designing publications explaining the program; fund raising or soliciting contributions of goods from businesses. STUDENT REACTIONS At any one time more than a dozen students from almost that many schools and colleges are likely to be working four to twenty hours a week for academic credit at the House of Ruth. Most seem to be attracted by the prospect of helping battered women rather than the homeless and destitute - the invisible (and less glamorous) people. Awareness changes attitudes, however, and few express regret that their experience is with a group for which, initially, they have little empathy. Even graduate students with some life experience to draw upon often express wonder at their own naivete in dealing with the women and the social service agencies ostensibly serving them. Students go through a form of culture shock, and many survive it determined to come back as seasoned volunteers when their formal obligation ends. Many speak with sadness of women who have lied to them, manipulated them, become their friends, and then disappeared. Happy endings cannot be taken for granted. The experiences of two students illustrate the diversity of backgrounds of students who have served successfully at the House of Ruth and the depth of the learning experience both had. Last spring Julia Pistor, a senior at the exclusive Georgetown Day High School, had to choose a project to which she would devote full time for six weeks. She considered using the time to write poetry, but she felt she needed to become acquainted with people she had not encountered in her sheltered life in the white, affluent part of the capital. She went to work at the Madison Center as a staff assistant. A poised, quietly self-confident young woman, she recalls, "I found it very frightening that first day. I left wishing I wasn't there because I felt I was inept, that the women really resented me, did not like me. Now I realize they were just looking at me to see who I was. I went back because I wanted to do it, and I knew first days are often horrible. After my third day I really enjoyed it." Among the women she remembers most clearly: a vendor who could not understand how it could happen that she would not have a place to stay; a woman who accused Dr. Maz of trying to murder her, threatened violence, and had to be sent to the public mental hospital; a woman who claimed (falsely) to have lost her Dutch passport and would speak to no one except Julia but left suddenly without saying goodby; a woman who found both an apartment and a job so she could have her son with her; a 17-year-old girl who had nowhere to go. Julia answered phones and the door (both screening processes), did intakes (filling out forms, calming the women down, orienting them), gave workshops on creative writing and hygiene, escorted women to social service agencies, offered ideas for job hunting, and listened. She says, "The House tries to let me do everything. I became part of the staff." To her surprise and delight, she formed some strong friendships. She ended on a note of optimism: "I used to be cynical about being upper middle class. These women are not cynical or bitter, and I am less so." A part-time graduate student in criminology at the University of Maryland, College Park, and a full-time credit counselor, Teresa Gilchrist grew up in the ghetto neighborhood where one of the three House of Ruth shelters now is located. She wanted to contribute to her old neighborhood and found the chance through a women's studies course with a service-learning component. She thought nothing could surprise her. The first day there she saw a lot of familiar faces, women that she had gone to school with as a child. It brought tears to her eyes to see what had happened in their lives, to see the "thin line between volunteers and residents." Working as a counselor, she has found herself listening to women from all walks of life, from the very educated to those who never got out of elementary school. Many are simply "down on their luck." She found that each one had to be dealt with in a different way. A registered nurse whose mother was dying of cancer "needed a place to stay rather than counseling." She left when she received word of her mother's death. A 17-year-old woman who was five months pregnant rejected advice to go to a home for unwed mothers because she feared it would take her baby from her. Counseling sometimes required her to expand her knowledge, as when a young mother just released from the public mental hospital asked her help in finding out how to get custody of her infant son again. Gilchrist gives the House of Ruth high marks as both a service and learning experience, though she thinks that some of the volunteers get more from the homeless than they are able to give. STARTING SIMILAR SHELTERS The staff members of the House of Ruth are quick to point out that the nation's capital is not the only place where shelters are needed. The problem affects urban and rural areas, prosperous and impoverished communities. Often government funds are not forthcoming, at least in the beginning. The House of Ruth has established sufficient community support that it now receives limited funding from the District's Department of Human Resources and rents the Madison Center, once an elementary school, from the city for $1 a year. Dr. Maz believes her tactics can be successful in many other places. She is working with groups in several cities and welcomes students (and others) who wish to come work with the House of Ruth - no one simply observes - to learn how it operates. As she says in describing how she learned to start a shelter for the homeless and destitute, "I had been a student and I had been a professor. I started applying all those things I had learned about basic psychology and sociology." NOTE Address inquiries to House of Ruth, 459 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, D. C. 20001. II. RAISES NOT ROSES Ellen Cassedy A group of employees from a small Boston publishing company called the 9 to 5 Organization for Women Office Workers' complaining that the women were earning salaries well below the posted minimum of their salary range and that men received longer vacations and better pensions. A Hampshire College sociology major interning at 9 to 5 helped them meet off company premises for a brainstorming session, researched laws on discrimination and overtime, prepared a written summary of their grievances and recommendations for change, and rehearsed them for a meeting with management in which they eloquently presented their case. They won higher salaries, better benefits, an end to sex discrimination in policies, and the right to meet regularly with management to discuss future problems. This is just one example of how students who will soon be joining the work force and women workers with job problems are teaming up through the Working Women Organizing Project in cities across the country. As they attack widespread issues of unequal pay, lack of fair promotional opportunity for women, and disrespect for working women, student and employee learn a great deal from one another. Organizing among office workers--who make up fully one third of the female work force nation wide--began in Boston and Chicago in 1973, spread to Cleveland, San Francisco, New York, and Dayton two years later, and now involves Hartford, Washington, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, and many other cities. Such organizations as 9 to 5 (Boston), Cleveland Women Working, and Women Organized for Employment (San Francisco) quickly find an eager constituency which has never before had a vehicle for its concerns. Neither trade unions, government anti-discrimination agencies, nor management policies have ever protected the rapidly growing clerical work force from low pay and other discriminatory practices. Through organizing, working women are learning to build support systems within their companies, mounting public pressure against discriminatory employers and improving the responsiveness of government anti-discrimination agencies. The working women's organizations represent the beginning of what seems likely to be a massive organizing effort within the next decade. The white collar industries are an unorganized enclave that is unlikely to remain unorganized for long. But because the effort is only beginning, and because serious issues of livelihood are involved, the organizing is slow and cautious. Tactics which are second nature in community action organizations are out of the question when the target is not just a government official--he's the man who could fire you from your job. Students have carried out projects essential to the work of these organizations both in the initial stages and after the organization has established itself. In the Boston area, for example, 9 to 5 has worked with students from Boston University, Simmons College, the University of Massachusetts, Harvard Divinity School, Hampshire College, Yale University, Suffolk Law School, and Antioch College. All of the students received course credit for their work. Supervision was handled jointly by 9 to 5's staff director and university instructors. High school students also have volunteered, usually after school or during the summer, and have contributed substantially. Several aspects of the organizing make student participation particularly useful. One of these is the need for flexible schedules. Unlike members of some women's advocacy organizations or community action groups, office workers are not at all flexible about their time. They are trapped at their desks from 9 until 5 and often have family responsibilities after work. While the organizations must have spokeswomen who are of the constituency, they also need an auxiliary staff which is available during the day to do a large variety of organizing and research tasks. Because it is a new movement, the concepts are clear and simple enough for newcomers to understand--and must be kept so. The focus is on practical action and results, on reaching a very broad range of people, on constant outreach, on stirring things up and starting office grapevines one by one by one. It's an endless amount of work, and it is simple to orient people to it. Because of the great fear of firing--a justified fear--and women's traditional fear of speaking up, working women do not tend to act militantly unless they are very sure they are right. Their employers tell them not to discuss their salaries with their co-workers. Affirmative action plans are kept locked in the personnel office. It's a rare worker who understands the Civil Rights Act or the National Labor Relations Act. Can your employer pay you one salary and the woman right next to you another? Can you be fired for refusing to make coffee for your boss? Is your salary fair? A great need exists for facts, statistical research, and legal information. As future employees, students have this need as much as current employees, and it is an excellent legal education for them to compile this information for working women. A note on attitude: Community organizing history is littered with stories of the bright college student who walked into the ghetto, or the rural town, or the factory, and tried to tell the people what to do to improve their lives. We tell students who work with us not to let their own preconceptions color their interactions with working women. Their own view of what people should be able to do about their job problems is probably unrealistic. Their own view about what is bothersome about a clerical job may well be off the mark for most office workers. Don't assume that the woman you are interviewing finds typing boring just because you do. Don't expect to be the spokeswoman for working women--instead, give them the support they need to speak for themselves. We also give students a great deal of supervision in their first contact with working women to make sure they absorb these points. We see our students go through a rapid education process which involves a growing respect for working women and their concerns. The benefits to the student are many. Even minimal contact with the exigencies of a campaign gives them a taste of advocacy organizing. They learn to work with a great variety of people and to assess their needs and interests quickly and objectively. They learn to analyze a social problem, such as unequal pay scales, and think about who can solve that problem, who will ally to press for the solution, who will resist the solution. They learn what goes into deciding upon a level of militancy and how to pace a campaign so that its beneficiaries don't drop out. They learn how important it is to pay attention to detail in organizing and advocacy work. One lost membership card, one misplaced word, will have repercussions. Quick, thorough follow-up with people who may have attended the first meeting of their lives can be invaluable. Students also gain a thorough knowledge of the job market and job rights. This makes up for a very unfortunate gap in secondary and post-secondary education. Women entering the work force rarely understand the structure of the industries they select from--insurance, banking, publishing.etc. They don't know how to go about setting good career goals, or what kind of company will support them in this. Students who work with working women's organizations become some of the best educated new employees ever to hit the job market. In setting up a working women's organization, the first job--one student volunteers can do admirably--is to get the facts about the "problem." Are working women in your city discriminated against? It's easy to find out from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Several students spend a week in the library comparing men's to women's pay, finding out how many women are the sole support of their household, seeing what the differences (if any) are in the educational background of women and men. Other students pound the sidewalks looking for the largest employers, the common gathering points for working women, the most busy transit exits. They visit the Chamber of Commerce and compile a comprehensive picture of the economy of their town. They visit the Women's Bureau of the U. S. Department of Labor, or write away for publications on women workers. They compile a fact sheet on working women in their city. At this point, they know more than the average citizen about how their town works. High school students are capable of doing much of this work, preferably as a class project with close cooperation between the teacher and the organization's staff. The organization could outline the project and direct students to sources while the teacher does most of the day-to-day supervision. The next step is to contact the constituency. How do working women feel about their work? It's not easy to reach working people on job issues. Stand on a busy street corner some morning at 8:55 and try to imagine how you would go about getting to talk to these preoccupied, hurrying people. That's exactly what students from Harvard Divinity School did as part of a credited field education project. Working with 9 to 5 eight hours a week, they were soon leafletting before and after work with issues questionnaires to be mailed to the organization. (Statistically, a return of as low as one percent is good.) At lunch they walked through the city doing street surveys. They visited high school business courses to inform women who were about to enter the work force. High school volunteers could do most of these tasks--if allowed out at lunch and during the day. All this street work would be unnecessary if women were able to walk into offices or company cafeterias and organize openly. Those days are yet to come. High school or college volunteers can compile the results of the questionnaire. Then the organization has some information to convey to those respondents who signed their questionnaires. In doing this college students or the organization's staff can begin one-on-one lunch time interviews--the heart of the organizing in the early stages. Even college students need a good deal of supervision in this phase, and I do not recommend that high school volunteers attempt this. We counsel students to be personable, supportive, and to listen carefully to what the women are telling them rather than trying to instruct the workers or tell them what to do. That part comes later. After students discuss their interviews with each other and with experienced staff and decide on a course of action, they can be more directive in their interviews. From the interviews come some women who are interested in sharing the work of building the organization. The next step may be a public meeting to bring the issue out into the open, provide a place to bring recruits, legitimize the cause, and teach some lessons about legal rights. It is vital for working women to understand their legal rights before taking action against an employer. College volunteers can play a major role in educating them. For example, under independent study, two University of Massachusetts women's studies students planned a legal rights workshop for women working in universities. The students visited government agencies for handouts on the laws prohibiting sex discrimination, governing overtime, and covering the right to organize. They called the American Bar Association for specialists in sex discrimination cases and labor law and found two lawyers to make short presentations. They then set to work translating the government publications into simpler language, and illustrated their legal fact sheet with examples culled from the questionnaires that had come in. They involved the interested women they had met at lunch in planning questions to ask the lawyers, drawing up a sex discrimination quiz, baking refreshments, and recruiting friends and co-workers by word of mouth. A staff supervisor showed the students how to lay out a leaflet to be posted on campus bulletin boards, and they mapped out a plan for covering the several colleges in the area. They knew some secretaries from their own campus and also knew which offices it was easy to walk into and which were off limits to passers-by. The result was an excellent workshop. It helped to launch several on-campus groups of office workers who went on to win improved policies. For the students, the result was a first-rate knowledge of organizing techniques that can be applied to any advocacy group, political campaign, or service organization; a thorough knowledge of employment rights; and insight into the situation of working women. This legal rights workshop, and others like it in other industries, set the stage for visits to government agencies to learn their functions (and eventually file charges against discriminatory companies), sessions on how to build support among co-workers, assertiveness training workshops, and a one-page newsletter highlighting job problems that had surfaced in the legal rights workshop. This was distributed monthly as an ongoing outreach tool, recruiting additional members and prompting policy reforms at the companies targeted. Students were involved in every stage. These early stages are duplicated in the formation of every working women's organization. As the organization becomes more established, other creative uses of students' talents become possible. Below are some examples. Harvard Divinity School students prepared a travelling show on working women's concerns and presented it to church groups after Sunday services throughout one semester. The working women among the parishioners they reached not only became members of 9 to 5 but also set up an ongoing support network for themselves through their church. During National Secretaries Week (the last week in April) kindhearted boses reward their secretaries with a bouquet of roses in return for a year's worth of uncompensated overtime, substandard salary, and lack of recognition. Since the rise of the working women's movement, women have sounded the slogan "Raises, Not Roses," held public hearings on the rights of working women, won the endorsement of mayors and city councils, and turned the tables on employers by rewarding them for their job performance. A Boston University communications major did a two-month project on the theme of National Secretaries Week. She prepared a fact sheet on the pay and status of working women in Boston offices, added spirited quotations from 9 to 5's officers, and sent the packet to every news source in the Boston area. She followed up with phone calls and succeeded in scheduling radio, newspaper, and TV interviews featuring secretaries eager to talk about the rights they felt they deserved along with their bouquets. The student also prepared a flyer on speaking to the press for use by the women recruited to be interviewed. Meanwhile, other students distributed rose buttons and job issues questionnaires asking office workers to evaluate their companies according to a Bill of Rights (see page 11) drawn up by 9 to 5. With the results of this street survey, the organization targeted particular job problems, prepared an assertiveness training workshop for working women, and identified particular companies and groups of working women who were interested in pressing for improvements. By writing to the Department of Labor, 9 to 5 learned that a major bank's equal employment policies were about to be reviewed by federal investigators in connection with the bank's federal contracts. A team of student volunteers set out to maximize employee participation in the review, to guarantee its accuracy, and thereby to prompt improvements. For one week the students surveyed employees as they came to work. The results showed that the bank was falling down on job posting, job training, and accurate job descriptions for equal employment issues relevant to the up-coming government review. The students followed up with in-depth one-on-one lunch time interviews with survey respondents. Students and employees prepared a report and met with the government investigators to present an invaluable picture of how women and minorities really fared at the bank. Improvements in job training and benefits for clerical workers resulted. In addition, employees and students received quite an education in their legal rights and in employer policies that work for and against these rights. For a senior honors project, students from Simmons College did the design work on a 9 to 5 publication called "Working Women's Buying Guide." Five sociology majors launched a career counseling and job bank service. They read materials on job interviews, including information on what questions a prospective employer may not legally ask a job applicant. They made charts of career ladders in several industries, researching the subject by interviewing 9 to 5 members and by making appointments with personnel officers at major companies. They made arrangements to receive job opening bulletins from large employers and to call others weekly for this information. Then they submitted articles to community newspapers announcing the new service. They soon began receiving both applications and requests from employers. The women using the service got a far more accurate picture of the job market than they would have at the average employment agency because of the educational materials on hand. Needless to say, the students themselves had become expert job-finders as well. High School students could maintain a job bank for high school seniors. They would go through many of the same procedures the college volunteers did, possibly in cooperation with the school's guidance department. For the most part, secretaries and file clerks did not participate in the women's liberation marches of the 1960's. They did not learn karate or enroll in women's studies courses, by and large. Yet the ideas of women's equality, equal pay for equal work, and fair treatment for working women have had a profound impact throughout American society. With economic pressures propelling more and more women into the work force and the inflation making their meager salaries worth less every year, an urgent need for change has hit the female job ghetto. Students can contribute greatly to making that change, and in doing so serve their own interests. NOTE The Working Women Organizing Project coordinates joint campaigns among the working women's organizations and helps spread the model of the established groups to any new city where there is a show of interest and sufficient resources to launch such a project. High school or college students who want to learn about the possibilities of establishing an organization in their area may request information and advice from the Working Women Organizing Project at either: 1258 Euclid Avenue, Room 206, Cleveland, Ohio 44115, (216) 566-8511 or 140 Clarendon Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02116, (617) 536-6003. A STUDENT GUIDE TO FIELD LEARNING EXPERIENCES Lizette Bartholdi, Laurie Bushbaum, Debra Horn, Denise Johnson, Kimberly M. Reynolds-Heiam, Karen Theiler, Robin Williams-Johnson This paper was composed by the students in the first field learning seminar offered by the Women's Studies Program at the University of Minnesota, under the direction of Cheri Register. Each of the students earned four credits for one quarter of work on an internship. Laurie worked at an organization that was set up to record the history of and promote traditional women's work. She transcribed taped oral histories and prepared for the grand opening of an office, exhibition area and consignment shop. Debbie worked as an administrative intern in the Minnesota Women's Center organizing the center's resource files for eventual computerization. Kimberly worked with Twin Cities NOW drawing up information on women's suffrage and the ERA for presentation to high school classes and for a radio program. Lizette worked at a shelter for battered women doing phone counseling and referral. Robin started a consciousness-raising group in her neighborhood. She and seven other women explored women's issues in our society for an eight week session. Denise worked with a senior social worker in child protection, exploring aspects of the social services through field work, seminars and interviews with professionals in various areas of social services. Karen worked with WAVAW (Women Against Violence Against Women) on an educational project on violence, pornography and rape prevention. How and Why Did We Make the Decision to Do an Internship? For all of us, the desire for an educational experience outside of the classroom and/or university was a major determining factor in deciding to do an internship. Women's studies, by nature, affects all aspects of our lives, and by doing an internship we hoped to focus on our particular interests in a non-academic setting. The other major reason that we chose to participate in an internship was to explore how feminism and women's issues coincide with the "working world." Some of us are graduating this year and used our internship to test out job possibilities for the future. As Kimberly said, "An internship provides a vehicle to combine academics and `real world' experience. It is an excellent way to test one's interests." For Robin, an internship was an opportunity to "cast about for things you've always wanted to try." What is Involved in Preparing for an Internship and Choosing an Agency? Many of us entered our internships without first critically evaluating our own expectations and needs as interns. An internship is more time consuming and demanding than we first realized; our level of commitment was crucial to our overall experience. A lot of our expectations were too high and had to be revised. Even though we were committed to our internships, they were substituted for only one class and we began to realize the time limitations of a short-term internship. One mistake that some of us made was to over-emphasize our responsibilities to our agency. It is important to remember that an internship is to benefit both the intern and the agency. We would have had more "successful" internships had we clarified, before we started, our attitudes and needs about work. Laurie voiced her experience with her internship by saying, "One of the most important lessons I learned in my internship is that the structure of an organization, such as its work environment and work patterns, is equally as important to me as the purpose of the organization. I realized that I work best in an open, communicative environment but also one that is very organized and task-oriented, that works at a fast, but efficient pace. I assumed that because I would be working in a feminist organization, everyone would work together well and I would fit right in. But, just because an organization is feminist doesn't mean that everyone involved will have the same ideas about the work environment." How Do You Write a Contract and What Do You Take into Consideration? In some instances, contracts are not necessary. Robin, for example, worked alone; she was her own supervisor and evaluator. She was pleased with this arrangement. Some of us who did have contracts with our agencies experienced problems. We included in our contracts information about work schedules, general duties, responsibilities, and interests, but in some areas lacked specificity. We often ran into unforeseen problems such as being assigned tasks that we really did not want to do. To overcome this problem, Denise suggested that the contract not be written until the second or third week of the internship. We think this would have prevented us from blindly committing ourselves before we had a realistic direction within our agencies. The biggest mistake Lizette and Laurie made in their contracts was not providing for adequate supervision and evaluation. We found it to be terribly frustrating not to have one specific person as a supervisor or a specific time to meet with her. Lizette expressed this frustration about supervision at her agency by saying, "If I had worked with one other staff member closely I know I would have learned more of what goes on at the shelter and I would have had more of a place there. My problem was I didn't know whom to ask questions of. I never saw the same people twice. I now feel that this should have told me something. No one knew what my work was there, so it was all up to me. I strongly feel now I should have asked a staff person to schedule time to work with me so I would have had a sense of continuity and someone I felt at ease with asking questions." Laurie found problems of evaluation at her internship. She commented: The one thing I wish I would have paid more attention to in my contract is the process of evaluation. I allowed for my supervisor and the other staff members to evaluate me at the end of the internship, but I did not foresee the need for me to evaluate in return. I think it would be a good idea to write into contracts a brief weekly mutual evaluation. That way, problems or questions can be taken care of before they get too big. It could have made it easier for me to make my feelings known. I would have had a set time to do that rather than having to initiate a confrontation. That was not experienced by everyone, though. Denise had a very positive system of evaluation. She added, "Meeting with my supervisor was the most helpful tool in meeting my goals. I would make appointments with her, with her encouragement, for about an hour a week in which we could discuss my internship from my point of view. We would discuss what I wanted to be doing, and she would show me her case load and possibilities of where I could participate with her clients." By meeting periodically one had a chance to re-evaluate the goals or change the scope of the internship. How Does One Sustain Interest, Enthusiasm and Commitment? Commitment came easy because we chose projects that we had been meaning to work on before the internship opportunity, or ones which would be testing grounds for jobs after college. Once the project has been chosen, the problem of discipline arises. One suggestion made by Denise was setting up a time schedule for working on a week-to-week basis. A time schedule affords personal discretion in a busy school week. She also suggested, "...talking about one's internship may help the motivation to continue--that's where a support group helps." We found that ta]king with others about problems and successes in a seminar setting provides a means of support and review of a project. A supervisor who can oversee and answer questions or provide personal support also helps, since some of us relate better in a one-to-one situation than in a group setting. Karen used her contract as a means of disciplining herself. "Discipline was easy for me since I attended a weekly meeting with WAVAW about community safety as well as a weekly seminar with other interns. In this way I could set up specific weekly goals with my supervisor and review what I had accomplished each week in the seminar. What Do You Do with Emotional Build-Up or "Burn Out" on a Project? Emotional build-up or "burn out" seemed to occur at different times for reasons as unique as each intern. One of the more common origins of "burn out" was a feeling of powerlessness while working with people who lack the means or will to change their situations, such as battered women and abused children. Others included personality conflicts and incompatible goals in a group situation. To avoid such problems or to cope with the emotional aspects of each internship, we tried methods ranging from physical activity to using one's right to say "no." Robin suggested handling the problem of "burn out" by "spacing yourself so that you don't work too steadily at the project but instead take little vacations from it. Get away from it for a better perspective. Because I live very near all the women in my Consciousness Raising group, I sometimes need to leave responsibility for continuing CR sessions day and night. I get away from it by working on projects for other classes, by going to my job, and sometimes just saying I don't have time to talk right now." Lizette related, "Weekly seminars helped to relieve some anxious feelings in a supportive environment. For some an ongoing journal would help, just somewhere to vent those burning ideas and problems. Another thing that helped me was riding my bike." We explored different alternatives for venting the emotional build-up or even making positive use of it. Karen added, "Another answer to emotional build-up is humor. I don't take myself so seriously that problems get to me. `Burn out' is good sometimes just to make you aware that your energy is limited and must be used to its best advantage. One way to deal with this is allowing distance from a project in order to redirect your time and energy." What Techniques Do You Use to Analyze and Abstract from the Internship Experience? As a group there was a fairly consistent consensus that a combination of reading and discussion with other people, whether in a formal seminar setting or informally with friends, helped clarify what we were doing and learning in the internships. Journals did not prove to be helpful to everyone. We all agreed that some people are journal writers and some are not. We felt that the option of a journal should be left up to each individual. The reading proved to be thought and emotion-provoking for several of us. Karen said, "Reading accounts of rape and brutality were too much for me, especially after hearing of experiences within our group. I found that I could only read one article a week because I became too furious." And Kimberly commented, "The reading material sustained my interest and activated my motivation. I was dealing with the long struggle of women in history. The history of discrimination provided fuel for a fire that burns so naturally inside of me." Thoughts and ideas from the internship, discussion and reading were brought up at our weekly seminar. We felt that having a consistent format for discussion helped us understand our purposes and expectations better. How Can You Use Your Internship as a Step from Being a Student to Not Being a Student? The transition from student to non-student was seen differently by each of us. As Karen said, "I do not see myself as moving from one point to the other. I consider myself a person working and learning as best I can wherever I am." Most of us found that the internships provided us with valuable real world experience that traditional university classes lack. Internships allowed us to employ our skills and, test our interest in areas of possible employment. Denise pointed out that an internship could be very valuable on a person's resume when one begins looking for a job. For all of us, internships provided a look at our creativity, self-discipline and personal interests. Kimberly said, "I would recommend choosing an internship that requires you to be at a certain place at a specific time, if you are unsure about your level of self-discipline. This allows you to assess what your abilities are and allows time to gradually improve them." How Do You Carry Knowledge Back and Forth from Reading and the Classroom to Your Internship? Our experiences with women's studies courses involve a lot of reflecting and processing of information. Women's studies courses attempt to deal with real life situations, not just academic questions. The internship was a good bridge for testing our academic learning outside the institution. We felt that outside reading and classroom discussions were interrelated with the internships. Robin said, "Ideas I bring from my group tie into the work I'm doing in the classroom and to my past women's studies classes. There are issues common to all women such as how much do biological differences have to do with sexism and what happened to women's history?" The discussions in our weekly seminar were helpful for Karen: "The classroom experience was great to question some of the things I was doing. It forced me to define terms to others and made the programs clearer in my mind. I also received second opinions as to whether others thought the program was effective or not, which was useful." How Do You Remain True to Your Values? How Does the Internship Test Your Definition of These? We all chose internships we felt would broaden our feminist ideologies. Denise stated, "The internship provides an opportunity to test our feminist ideologies to see if they hold up outside the classroom. It may change for one may discover the real world is different than pictured from a distance. Lizette encountered an ethical dilemma: "When there were staff problems at the shelter I didn't know if I'd be betraying the staff or not if I spoke to residents at the shelter about the conflicts." For Robin, "...the only way my internship tested my definition of feminism was when I had to be quiet and accept as reality women who said they were happy with what I considered to be truly oppressive ways of living. I had to decide that it was unfeminist of me to screech my beliefs at other women." How Do You Know When You're Done? Most of us will continue our internship projects in some way. If the internship part was to be over at the end of the quarter, this condition was set up in the contract stating exactly how long we would each spend with the people or agency involved. It was important to us to wrap up the project and to get feedback from the person or persons we were working with. Denise had a two hour discussion with her supervisor about her experiences and what was learned from them. A promise to continue with the relationship on a non-professional basis was a nice end to the internship. Robin and her CR group spent the last of eight sessions wrapping up ideas discussed throughout the quarter with a pot luck lunch afterwards. The internship may be finished for a number of reasons, the termination of the quarter, the accomplishment of goals or the expectations of the contract met. Kim felt that "I knew when I finished because I had attained a satisfactory number of my expectations that I had laid out at the beginning of the project." How Do You Get Out or Continue On with the Internship Once the Quarter is Over? Debbie felt it is important to have in mind a vision of the end when starting. She thinks of the internship as being on a continuum: "Where I leave off someone else will be ready to take over. From the beginning then, I think that it is important not to be possessive about your project. When it is over you have to be ready to evaluate and leave it or stay on in another capacity." Continuing on when the internship is completed may be done by changing the role from an intern to a volunteer. Debbie may continue on as a volunteer worker at the Women's Center. Denise will change her relationship with one of her clients from that of social worker to that of a volunteer big sister. Robin hopes to continue on with the CR group but without taking total responsibility for the running of the group. She also hopes to use her communication skills developed in her internship in some area of counseling women, possibly in a feminist organization. How Do You Decide What You Have Learned and What is Most Important? Self-measurement is a primary tool used by all of us in evaluating our internships. Kim thought "if one learns something that will enhance further and future learning, it is important," whereas Debbie felt "it was asking myself if I had learned something that I could put into use in other situations. It is important to me to be able to apply what I learned to new experiences and situations." Comparing the goals we set for ourselves at the onset of our respective internships with what we felt we had accomplished was a concrete way of assessing our internships. Input from supervisors and advisors along with sharing experiences within our group aided in evaluating our learning experiences. In place of a final paper, in which we had intended to pull together our experiences with research and present it to the group, we decided to write this article. Preparation for writing this proved to be beneficial to us for we each answered the questions as they related to ourselves. We chose to share them in this article in hopes of aiding future interns. How Do You Define Success and Failure in an Internship? Defining success and failure in an internship is difficult. There is always something more that could have been done, especially when you are setting your own goals and disciplining yourself. There is no absolute measure of success or failure in doing an internship. Karen said, "Success and failure in an internship come from analyzing each experience. If goals are not met one has to decide if it is because of personal failure, simply bureaucratic problems or even luck." Kim felt, "Success is coming away with a feeling that both the individual and the organization benefitted in some way. Failure doesn't equal an internship that didn't go as planned. An internship can go through major reconstruction and still be a very successful project. This is especially true when one's goals are primarily under the heading of `learning.' There is also a lot to be learned from an internship that flipflops in mainstream." How Do You Know When You've Succeeded? "I knew when I'd succeeded when I felt that I had learned a lot from the process, that it had changed me, made an influence on my life somehow, whether or not the project itself was a success or a failure," said Robin. The criteria for success as Denise saw them were "...when we felt good about the internship, when we were glad we participated in the internships, and when we felt we had accomplished at least some of the goals that we had set up for ourselves in the beginning." COPING WITH DIFFICULT PLACEMENTS: TWO CASE STUDIES I. FRUSTRATION, ANGER AND LEARNING AT A RAPE CRISIS CENTER Stacey Zlotnick From January to May 1980, in the last semester of my senior year, I took part in a service learning internship sponsored by the University of Maryland Women's Studies Program. I spent between ten and twelve hours a week at one of the most comprehensive rape crisis facilities in the country, recognized as a national model for the cooperative network it had coordinated between the police, social service agencies, and hospital personnel. Besides twenty-four hour emergency gynecological treatment and laboratory analysis, the center provided ongoing group counseling for adult, adolescent, and child victims, as well as individual counseling, couples and family counseling, and around the clock hotline service. As an intern at the sexual assault center, one of my primary responsibilities was to conduct a telephone follow-up service for rape victims who had discontinued contact with the center. Often, these women would come to the center for gynecological treatment and the lab tests necessary for legal prosecution, schedule an appointment for individual counseling, and then fail to return. Some women had difficulty coming to the center because they lived far away, or lacked the money or means necessary to travel. Others chose to dam up the memory of their rapes by becoming absorbed in the daily routine of their previous lives, so that contact with the center was clearly a threatening or disturbing experience. And then there were the others, the shut-ins, who were simply too fear-ridden or depressed to abandon even their doorsteps, much less travel to the center. I was to telephone each woman, inquire as to how she was feeling both emotionally and physically (could she sleep, eat, and return to work?), obtain any information she had concerning the status of her police report or criminal trial, remind her of the center's counseling services, and offer her my moral support. For each victim there was a case history, sometimes pages and pages in length, focusing on the biographical sketch of the victim, the detailed events of her rape, and the psychological distress she suffered in the aftermath. And after reading their stories, after knowing who they were, where it had happened, and when and how it had occurred, I had to telephone these women--women whose bodies had been raped and abused by their fathers, their brothers, their ex-lovers, and strangers--and ask them how they felt? My God, what a ridiculous, worthless, waste of breath. From the first to the very last telephone call, I would dial, then hold my breath--mentally rehearsing each line, pretending that mere optimism was a painkiller. Mostly, to my relief, no one answered. Or the operator would cut in on the line to tell me that the number I was dialing had been changed to an unlisted number. Relief again. When I did reach a woman, my questions were often met with hurried replies, as she nervously guarded each word, afraid that her husband or parents would discover she had been raped. But occasionally, someone would be grateful that I'd called, and she'd tell me her story. She couldn't sleep at night, had lost her appetite, and was afraid to go out alone. She was depressed, just couldn't clean up the house, or concentrate on her schoolwork; she just didn't know what had come over her. And I'd smile, slip some painkiller into my voice, and tell her that it's a natural reaction, it's to be expected--and all the while I knew that I couldn't sleep, or eat, or go downstairs to the laundryroom alone. But what else could I tell her? That just last night before starting my car, I'd glanced in the rear view mirror four times, checking for a head, a hand, a gun to emerge from the back seat? At first, I thought that the frustration I was feeling was caused by my struggle against the obvious limitations of telephone counseling, for at best I could deliver only temporary comfort and support to the victim. However, as a co-counselor in the weekly group therapy sessions, I soon learned that my frustration was with the scotch tape and paper clip method of psychotherapeutic carpentry I was being trained to provide. When a woman said she cried for no reason every night, she was told to pamper herself with a bubble bath. If she complained that she was terrified to leave her home alone, she was told that this was a normal reaction that would dissipate with time. And yes, she was assured, in time she would be able to have sex with her husband without feeling frightened or paralyzed. Her anger, frustration, and tears were labelled the normal symptoms of rape victimization, and then brushed under the rug. I never sincerely felt that I was helping anyone; tomorrow or the day after, I knew that there would be another little girl, feet stirruped, back flat on the examining table, whose well-trained legs would flop apart impassively at the tap of the doctor's hand. I was fighting a make-believe crusade against rape, and in fact, I was helping to safeguard it: by training women to adjust to their rapes, to cope with their anger, they never got the chance to ask why in the hell it had happened to them in the first place? In spite of my discontent, I never once dared to tell anyone how I felt. Outside the group counseling sessions, I saw my supervisor so minimally, that there was only time for her to ask me how everything was going as she passed me in the corridor, and for me to assure her with a nod and a smile, "I'm fine." Maybe it was the way she'd tell me how everyone said I was doing such a good job, or that thank God I wasn't like the other intern that had to be supervised every minute, that made me realize that I was expected to behave. To admit that I was upset or frustrated was to admit my inability to work independently; and, if I couldn't work independently, then I needed to be supervised. And it was very clear, that my supervisor had neither the time, nor the desire, to drop her important responsibilities to "babysit" me. For the others, it seemed that the way to survive was to objectify, to see each rape as each victim's horror--to bring it outside yourself where it couldn't stab at your insides. They were counselors and they saw clients--people who suffered emotional distress to life's experiences. In this case, the experience just happened to be rape. Once, I did try talking to one of the other student interns. Except to her, rape was something she could never quite imagine what it would be like. But you see, I could. Maybe that was my problem, I really could imagine it. I had never before considered myself to be a political person. In the past, I was a feminist because as a self-confident, ambitious woman, I believed that I had the right to any opportunity that was available to a man. And like most women, I glided through life thinking that oppression was a radical fanatic's exaggerated idea of day to day sexism. But now, oppression means thinking twice before deciding to walk alone at night. It means to sham a strong and fearless stride as your heart pounds, and your eyes glance backwards, and your feet wish they were wearing sneakers instead of sandals in case they had to run. I never met most of the women--they were names on police reports, voices on telephones--but I will always know the reality of their fear. And because of our shared consciousness, I will never again be able to sit sheltered in a sterile bubble with an anesthetic smile, and tell some woman that she must learn to cope with her anger, and incorporate the experience into herself. Women must be taught to recognize their anger for what it is, a rebellion against patriarchal oppression, and not an idiosyncratic rape symptom devoid of rational/political meaning. I have realized the inadequacy, the injustice, of traditional psychotherapy, and I distrust any bit of research, regardless of how renowned the author, that refuses to consider how politics affects the emotional lives of women. That means a lot of my education and training has been a lot of garbage. Admittedly, no learning can occur in a vacuum. Without the ongoing study of feminist literature, the concern of my co-seminar classmates, and the tire-less support and encouragement of my co-seminar teacher, I might have walked away from this experience unchanged, blaming myself for my frustration. To the next woman embarking on a similar journey, I wish her three things: the perceptiveness to see, the strength to endure, and a shoulder to cry on. II. GROWTH THROUGH CONFLICT IN A STUDENT-DIRECTED PROJECT Toni Johnson Last semester I interned on a student-originated project about the career advancement of women. The placement was unique in that the project was directed and maintained entirely by undergraduate students, and although there was a faculty adviser, his role was to give suggestions and lend support rather than actively supervise the work. Because the funding agency believed that such autonomy would promote a more intense learning experience for the students, the student director was empowered to hire the project participants, also students; apportion stipends; and generally see that the program was carried out in accordance with the project proposal. The purpose of the project was to provide and analyze a structured support system aimed at enhancing the academic and career motivation in undergraduate women who had already displayed a certain degree of ability but who may have been stifled by social expectations and/or internalized psycho-social barriers. It was originally designed for female students from the university's incoming 1979 class with combined Scholastic Aptitude Test scores of 1100 or above. A structured seminar format utilizing a "core manual" was implemented, and the issues that were contained within the seminar were selected in an effort to "promote active strategizing of achievement behaviors." I was pleased to be given the opportunity to work on the project, to do something that I considered worthwhile and vital to improving the status of women. I began the semester with high hopes and optimism; however, by the end of the term, I was angry and disillusioned. As a Black woman, I perceived my treatment during my internship as racist and condescending. My feelings have not absolutely changed, but now, almost a semester later, I recognize how much I have learned from the experience--about myself and about working with others. This essay is not about racism, nor is it about the details of my placement, although some details have been included for clarity. It is about disappointment, conflict, growth and development. Hopefully my experience will help others to better cope with their internships, whether the situation is conflictual, like mine was, or not. At the onset of my participation on the project, I was given a copy of the project proposal which contained an abstract of the work to be done and defined the roles of project staff. Although it was to be a "team" effort, we each had certain aspects of the program for which we were to be held responsible. My role within the project, as was initially presented to me, was that of adapter. The directors, aware that the core manual had been developed by an upper-middle class White woman, appreciated the possibility that it might not address the concerns of women from different ethnic and/or socio-economic backgrounds. My task, which I shared with Saundra, another Black woman, was to modify the existing manual, making it sensitive to the special needs of Black women. In order to earn six credits, I was also to co-lead an achievement motivation seminar for Black female students and participate in a weekly internship seminar required by the women's studies program. When we began work early in the semester, three of the five-member team had already been working on the project for some time. They all knew exactly what had to be done to keep the project running smoothly and reach the appointed goals within the deadlines specified. Saundra and I, on the other hand, were not well versed in the procedures, so we did mostly clerical chores, stuffing and addressing envelopes, making telephone calls, typing and the like, since these were the duties assigned to us. We did some library research for our own edification and to make improvements in the existing manual, but after a while we came to see that our responsibilities, as explained to us by our supervisors, the project's co-directors, were quite different from the actual duties that we performed. For weeks our work suffered while we aided others in their work. It became apparent to us that the adaptations for Black women were indeed of lesser importance to the rest of the team. The adaptations steadily fell behind schedule, but Saundra and I were consistently given other tasks which hampered our progress. In a few short weeks, we had gone from adapters to office workers, observers, group leaders and public relations persons--positions made difficult by our ignorance of the administrative procedures and research methodology and by the newness of our constantly changing roles. Unconfident and discouraged, we began to ask ourselves why we were hired, and if, in good conscience, we could continue work on the program. We were uneasy not only about our positions on the project, but also about the merit, or lack of it, in what we had done for Black women. Whenever we voiced these apprehensions, we felt that our feelings were glossed over. Deadlines had to be met and work had to be done. By this time Saundra and I had succeeded in substituting several articles within the core manual for pieces we thought more relevant to Black women and "adapting" only two out of eight sessions in the manual. I began to feel like a "token" used to gain funds from a granting agency which was interested in programs including and beneficial to minorities. If I had not been hired, any Black female undergraduate body would do. I did much of my work grudgingly and felt resentment when criticized by the other members of the group. It was clear to me that the project goals did not sincerely encompass the enlightenment or motivation of Black women, but rather unrealistically aimed at being an interracial miracle manual geared to meet the needs of all women in one fell swoop. Our dissatisfaction with the program led Saundra and me to search for insights into the causes of our uneasiness. Our confusion and feelings of isolation led us to begin to share with each other on a more personal level. We began to seek out Black women on campus and in the community. We began looking for literature by Black women, and we discovered many new things about ourselves, as individuals and as part of a larger minority group. We decided that simply adapting the existing manual was not enough to address the special needs of Black women. We realized that instead of designing a support system for Black women, we had simply modified one which was designed for White women, making it non-alienating to Blacks. We did not feel that such a group was in the best interest of Black women in a majority White institution; we felt that major structural changes needed to be made to take into account the fact that the position of Black women in America is truly a unique one. Black women are usually forced to address their needs as Black people without regard to their sex or as women without regard to their color. The special issues that one faces when one is both Black and female are seldom considered. The project had dealt with race as a peripheral issue, and although in retrospect, I do not believe the project was racist in intent, it is ludicrous to expect that Black women can focus entirely on sexism while ignoring their race, especially where race is an isolating factor as it is on a majority White campus. Reluctantly, a compromise was agreed upon. Saundra and I were to develop appendices especially for Black women to accompany what the co-directors now considered an interracial manual. This arrangement was dysfunctional to such an extent that a "team" effort was no longer possible. Finally, Saundra and I broke off from the group to continue working on developing our own manual for Black women. Presently we are investigating funding sources and sharing our ideas with others in the field. This internship was the second of two in which I participated as an undergraduate student. The first was a positive and encouraging experience. I worked in a supportive environment and learned much about the agency and its functions. I left the placement feeling good about myself and wanting to continue in another internship program. When I began to work on this project last semester, I was unprepared for its frustrations and anxieties. I ended the term angry and disillusioned. Now, as I look back over last semester, the anger has subsided, and I am thinking more clearly about what I have gained from the conflict. I think I am more realistic about working and better prepared to work with others. I know to take initiative without overextending myself, and I'll think twice before aiding others in their work, especially when the increased responsibility may mean taking needed time away from my own commitments. I can now better appreciate the seminar discussion group and the readings which accompanied the internship; I realize how much they inspired me to take steps to relieve what I considered an oppressive situation. Talking with other women in the class, sharing our experiences, gave me the support that my work site lacked. I've learned a lot through turmoil--about power and politics, role-playing and game-playing, racism and sexism, and Black and White women, but most importantly, I've learned a lesson about the "real world." I was very idealistic when I started the term. I thought that others wanted change as much as I and for the same basic reasons. I trusted blindly, forgetting that most people are motivated by personal gain. Now I see that interns are much like "babes-in-the-woods," easily preyed upon and taken advantage of, as is any individual new to the labor force if she or he is unprepared for it. It is important to learn from others and to do your job according to the mandates of your superiors, but it is equally important to protect and defend yourself when you believe that you are right. No matter how hard I struggled through my internship, I can see that I am a better person for it. REFLECTIONS ON SURVIVING AS AN INTERN Judy Sorum Over the past few years, I've spent some very interesting time talking with women just about to begin an internship as part of their academic program, who want to know how best to enter that experience, how to get the most out of it, and how to avoid common pitfalls. I have, over this time, come to the conclusion that there isn't much difference between these soon-to-be interns and the rest of us, women workers, who cope with change and flux, ambiguity and productivity, in our own work lives. Therefore, I suspect that the best advice that can be provided to interns is that which comes out of our own experiences of being new on a job, and out of our own trials and errors. It is from this perspective that I share some thoughts--my own as well as those gleaned from friends--about how to begin and survive internship. I have found that, when about to enter a new work situation, it is important to maintain ties with activities that have helped define us in the past: creative activities, athletic activities, personal projects. Sometimes our first instinct under the time and energy pressures of a new work environment is to give up such activities, and to avoid undertaking new efforts in these areas. It may be better to do just the opposite--to plan for time specifically dedicated to at least one important, energizing, grounding activity unrelated to the work. When I was about to begin my experience as a White House Fellow, for example, I returned to the serious study of the piano, which I had abandoned fifteen years before. On the assumption that the discipline would be therapeutic, I invested in a beautiful grand piano and began to practice on a regular basis. The discipline was wonderful, and the music a healthy counterpoint to the zaniness and challenge of my totally new work environment. I found that I enjoyed sharing this new interest with old friends, and that new work colleagues were surprisingly interested in my taking up this long dormant interest again. It has provided me much joy. At the same time I started my fellowship experience I also began keeping a journal. Despite an academic background in literature, I had never done so before--partially because I objected to having to write "regularly," and partially because I didn't see its usefulness to me. I found now, however, that maintaining a personal, my-eyes-only journal gave me a means of expressing feelings, ideas, conclusions about the experience I was having. I have come to believe that the form of the journal may not matter, and that writing regularly is not essential (in one rough week I wrote 50 pages; other times I write nothing), but that paying attention to one's processes and growth and learning is most important--at least to me. Some internship supervisors require their students to keep a journal and turn it in; I recommend that the student keep a strictly personal journal and if anything is turned in it be a summary, excerpts, or a separate log. I think it important that we have some place in our lives to express ourselves to ourselves, without censoring our thoughts and feelings for a reader. The journal becomes an absolutely private place for the intern to be thoughtful, crazy, pensive, together, shattered, rational, emotional. I also suggest that interns develop a support system in the work-place. Some people call this "networking," but I am suggesting perhaps a more selective process to identify people in the work-setting (and outside it) who are effective, helpful, sympatica, competent, and willing to share their time and experience with us. These people know that I'd like to be able to call on them, that I am new to the work setting, and that I may be needing their help. While many members of this important informational and social support system will be other women, it is also important to consider men a part of this system,and to seek their support where appropriate. Building such a system gives us a chance to know these people better: to be curious about them, how they got to where they are, what their interests are, what things interest and challenge them--in sum, to see them as whole and complex human beings, as we would hope they would see us. By modeling interest in others as whole beings we probably stand a better chance of being seen and treated as total human beings ourselves, and not just as temporary cogs in the organizational machinery. Two caveats: as we go about developing and tending this support system, we should remember that not all women will be interested in supporting our efforts--as indeed, all men will not be. The idea is to be selective and to call on those people with whom we feel some kinship and who are interested in such a mentor/supporter role. Secondly, we should not overlook the resource and support which women at various levels of the organizations can provide. Often, e.g., in our attempts to be professional and businesslike, we model behaviors toward support staff which we have seen in male dominated organizations--hierarchical disdain for the contributions of women in these roles, discounting of their talents and abilities. Many knowledgeable and talented secretaries and clerks are more than willing to be supportive and helpful to an intern--if she will allow that to happen. In addition to a work-setting support group, a non-work network of friends has helped me think through work-related problems. Many of these are old friends, some new--who enable me to develop broader perspectives on things that I encounter in the work place. They come from a variety of backgrounds and experiences, and that makes their advice even more valuable. And finally, I have found it useful to think about experiences I have had, or know of, that seem analogous to a new work environment. What is this like? How does it resemble something with which I am already familiar? Often we are so struck by the newness of a situation, and the things that we don't know, that we miss, at first, seeing how it is like other experiences we've had. Thus we are slow to realize that we already 'nave skills and competencies that are transferable to this new place. It may be helpful to think, "Well, this is like being the new kid on the block," like "the first day at summer camp," like "learning sailing," like "the first week of college." Then we can recall what we did in those situations that worked well--and those responses that didn't work well, that we wouldn't care to repeat. Perhaps because of my training in literature, I also think of analogues, or metaphors (like being an actor in a Broadway play, or the director of a ballet) that help me take on new roles, see how I might do things I haven't done before. The metaphor I find most helpful comes from my fascination with the work of Margaret Mead. In a new work situation, I often think of myself as an anthropologist in an alien tribe--curious, reflective, observant, trying to learn as much as I can and to work as effectively and unobtrusively as possible in this alien tribe before I move on. This way of thinking helps me work with energy and patience without feeling the need to change "the tribe" to my values (almost impossible to do in any role, let alone as an intern); it helps me value much of the rich cultural heritage I am observing. Beyond these personal analogies, interns can try to understand the social analogues of the work setting. In many male-organized work-settings, those analogues will be athletic, military, etc. It helps to be fluent in these social metaphors even if they aren't terribly rich for us personally. I have found, for instance, that playing racquetball with the other (male) special assistants has helped me better understand their behavior, and mine, off the court. And it expands my "fluency" in the dominant language of the work situation. All my reflections suggest that: as we work with women interns we can share, from our own experiences, strategies for learning, growing and surviving in a new situation--for these are, in a simple sense, what are needed to make an internship work. And for most of us they are some combination of grounding ourselves in the transcendent themes of our lives, being as open and observant as possible of the new experience, and finding fellow travelers along the way who can help us over the rough spots and celebrate the victories with us. TO ARM THE AMAZONS: EMPOWERING STUDENTS AT FEMINIST WORKSITES Kathryn Girard Sisterhood can be joyous and energizing. It can also be frustrating and disillusioning. The `personal' cost of working in a women's center, a rape project or a Women's Studies program is often quite high. We expect the hours of exciting and tedious processing that it takes to build such programs. We don't expect pain and confusion about our worth, skills and values, but these are outcomes of the feminist group experience for many of us. Where does sisterhood go wrong? We work in groups dedicated to learning new skills and taking back our power, yet we may leave these groups less confident than when we started and feeling badly about ourselves and the feminist process. Collaboration, cooperation, non-hierarchical, consensual, collective--these are the key descriptors of the groups that leave bitter ex-members behind. For how many of our students is the feminist worksite empowering? I will explore some of the specific problems interns may encounter in feminist groups, and sketch some steps that a women's studies program might initiate to assist both the student and the feminist organization in creating a mutually satisfying internship. Before doing so, I want to outline some of the limits of this essay. I am looking only at issues in explicitly feminist groups believing that feminist rhetoric and philosophy contribute significantly to the problems our groups encounter. My focus here is on consensual or non-hierarchical feminist groups (though hierarchical feminist groups may pose similar problems for interns in certain areas), because, again, it is the values and expectations leading to the choice of those organizational modes that allow certain dynamics to arise. The ideas here are the product of ten years of work in feminist caucuses and organizations, and are substantiated largely by the nods, groans and "ah ha's" that accompany my presentations about organizational patterns and group dynamics to feminists working in feminist task groups. In many cases the ideas suggest causal relationships; these represent my working hypotheses as I explore the likely relationships among attitudes, ideas and behaviors. One last comment on the framework for this essay. Many of the dynamics described here suggest failures in feminist, non-hierarchical groups. This critical view must be understood in the context of my beliefs that the struggle to translate feminist rhetoric into organizational structures and personal behaviors is essential and worthwhile; that we must not deny the failures, but rather, learn from them. We must prepare our students toward this end as well. To explore issues student interns are likely to confront in feminist worksite placements, it is necessary to look at the nature of many feminist organizations. Several common characteristics and patterns described here should be kept in mind when arranging a practicum experience. Desire for, or assumption of, equality: In our hearts I think we expect and wish feminist organizations to provide us an experience of equality among our sisters, to function holding true to some notion of equality. Missing accountability mechanisms: Procedures for insuring that tasks are accomplished appropriately, and for responding when they are not, are frequently fuzzy, avoided or nonexistent. Job rotation or open job selection and job changing: Job rotation or self-selection of tasks and jobs are ways that groups have tried to enable women to develop new skills and follow new interests. The changing and rotation of jobs are also intended to demystify certain types of work and to maintain an equality of skills, knowledge and power. High staff turnover: This bane of many feminist organizations is self-explanatory, and its causes are probably familiar--salaries that are too low (where they exist at all), and work that is overwhelming. Participatory or consensual decision-making: While there seem to be fewer task groups and organizations functioning with an explicitly non-hierarchical structure now than in earlier years, many groups operate with a modified hierarchy and attempt to make decisions in a consensual or participatory manner. Compromises are made in the structure such that the director, for example, may have overall authority and be perceived by the larger institution or community as being "in charge," but actual decision-making authority and responsibility is delegated to groups or the entire staff. In some cases a modified hierarchy is an attempt to maintain two fronts--an external hierarchy for incorporation or credibility purposes, and an internal non-hierarchy for ideological ones. `Decentralization' and `small group autonomy' are two other characteristics related to this type of organizational structure. Desire to meet the needs and expectations of others: As women well socialized in this society, many of us do not say "no" easily in the face of obvious need. In addition to being a personal neurosis, this pattern is also an organizational one. All organizations face the problem of fitting individual needs, program needs and larger community or institutional needs into a workable and effective whole. Women's organizations--including and perhaps especially feminists ones--suffer from women's issues at the organizational level. For the only women's organization on a campus or in a town, this pattern is exacerbated. Constant survival focus and crisis orientation: Very few feminist organizations go through a year without having to worry about how to survive the following year. Issues of effectiveness are constantly being thrown up against issues of survival; often, long-range planning is neglected. Underfunded, understaffed and "undereverythinged" compared to goals and services: Most feminist organizations are inadequately staffed, severely underfunded and incredibly overworked. (For example, a survey of women's centers across the country found that typical women's centers, reaching over 2,000 women a year, had 5 part-time staff and ran 9 programs.) The resulting strain is easy to predict. Feminist groups always aspire to accomplish far more than their available resources would seem to allow. Marginality: This is a characteristic familiar to most women's studies programs as well as other feminist groups, since neither is funded nor "housed" so as to be a part of the mainstream of our communities or academic institutions. A small budget and small staff doing work that is generally considered unimportant may bring greater freedom, since fewer people care to pay serious attention, and that can be a real advantage. On the other hand, the risk to survival is significantly increased. Equalization of rewards: Even where salaries are graduated, the belief that rewards should be equalized is often present--sometimes as an undercurrent, sometimes as an explicit issue. Frequently there is some attempt to equalize other concrete rewards, such as vacation time, and/or more intangible rewards, such as inclusion in social activities. Confusion over issues of power and leadership: Confusion often seems to arise around the appropriateness and meaning of power. We want our organization to have the power to effect changes but, within them, individual power is often perceived negatively. Covert norms and problematic dynamics around power often center on an assumption that everyone in the organization has, or should have,equal power (something that is virtually impossible); or on an assumption that if someone has power, then someone else has had it `taken away' (which is sometimes true, and sometimes an assumption that obscures how frequently we `give' our power away); or on an assumption that no one `should' have power (also virtually impossible). These assumptions tend to prevent us from dealing with the reality of our differences. II. These are some of the characteristics of the organizations into which we are sending our idealistic, hopeful Amazon feminists. This essay is a plea to send them in armed. The first step in that direction is to examine some implications of these organizational patterns for interns. The desire for or assumption of equality becomes problematic when the equality of members is translated into sameness. We believe in and are fighting for equality through our work; realizing equality in our work place is very difficult. We frequently end up reducing equality to the simplest and most concrete idea--sameness: same treatment, because that is a clear marker of equality, and same status or level because we know that there will be no power inequities. This assumption has several implications for people coming into the work place. An intern or a new staff member requires some basic training and orientation, but the teacher-student, trainer-trainee relationships appear unequal and there may be widespread discomfort with such explicit inequities. Otherwise, it is hard to explain the ongoing stories of interns given correspondence to answer, articles to write, issues to research, phones to answer, clients to see-- with no introduction to the organization or the task and with no initial supervision. The polite avoidance of skill differences affords few favors. An undergraduate for whom her placement is a first job typically lacks the skills to negotiate for training. She may have as great a discomfort with the teacher learner dichotomy as staff members, and therefore initially appreciate the assumption that she can just pick up on her new job. Such initial appreciation can quickly fade if the task is overwhelming or not familiar. Tension is compounded when a student internalizes the problem and sees her difficulties as her failure, her problem. Another problem arises from warm-hearted, well-intentioned messages of equality to interns and new staff. Interns, especially full-time ones, may be told that they are to function as equal members of the organization, but the reality is that they cannot: they lack the history, information and influence or power among group members and the leadership skills or position of older members. The message and the experience are dissonant and confusing. Again, inexperience, socialization and expectations of the feminist work place contribute to the student's feeling that confusion is her failure. A different kind of problem stemming from the assumption of equality occurs when we approach an intern with that assumption and therefore omit a thorough assessment of her skills and abilities. A fine intention can result in assigning the intern either to tasks below her actual skill and ability level or to tasks beyond her current abilities. In the interests of not treading on individual equality, the intern receives an experience of total frustration and disappointment, which often turns to anger and resentment, or an experience of intense anxiety, fear of failure and the belief that the problems are her fault. Our goal as women, of coming to know and to validate our strengths, is not aided by the assumption that "of course I can start counseling rape victims tomorrow." We do not need to create and perpetuate an Amazon myth. The dynamic that arises from allowing women to attempt as much as they want (or the organization wants) without adequate training or support, coupled with a common individual pattern of internalizing problems as personal failures, is not productive to a student's learning. One final point about issues for interns related to assumptions of equality: the more radical students are the ones most likely to have the most difficult time. The student who just started to think about women's issues is not as likely to hold heartfelt expectations about the experience of sisterhood in a feminist internship setting. More radical students, who have already acquired a zealous spirit and an Amazon persona, are more likely to enter the organization expecting the experience of equality that the other members of the group think they are prepared to give. In a radical organization they are likely to receive the rhetoric and some of the behaviors that on the surface seem appropriate, but that then increase their confusion and pain when the experience "doesn't feel good." The lack of clear accountability mechanisms is connected to the assumption of equality. Feminist organizations often speak passionately about their accountability and responsibility to their community. Individual members also speak, with a great deal of feeling, about their responsibility to be true to their community. Individual members also speak, with a great deal of feeling, about their responsibility to be true to their own convictions, values and political beliefs, and express strong feelings of responsibility toward the other women in the organization. The problems arise at the level of accountability for completing tasks related to the organization's purpose. Accountability at that level is often seen as too hierarchical, intruding on personal autonomy and undermining individual power within the group. It is rare to find clear systems of accountability--systems set up so that someone else knows to do, by when, and is responsible for intervening if I don't do it. Even in more hierarchical and professional organizations with clearly defined staff responsibilities, accountability mechanisms may still be inadequate because of a great hesitancy to intrude into another's work, to make direct statements, such as, "You didn't do X." (It is interesting how the Women's Movement and our socialization combine to burden us with beliefs and behaviors of Superwoman, on the one hand, and emotional fragility with regard to criticism and anger on the other.) One clear implication is that interns can end up without supervision. No one has that role among the regular staff, and frequently no one is quite comfortable in that role. Or, the staff may dutifully create a supervisory accountability system for the intern, who then becomes the only one in the entire organization whose work is checked! Either way, the intern suffers the effects of negative dynamics. Interns also can be victims of "crisis accountability," accountability mechanisms that only come into play when work due a month ago is needed. A crisis meeting is scheduled and, for the first time, the intern may hear both the groups' expectations of and responses to her. Because of the crisis, others in the organization may already be at the point of thinking of terminating her or changing her job. Two other characteristics of feminist groups--staff transiency and job rotation--serve to compound the problems with accountability. Both these patterns mitigate against the development of staff members' skills to the point where they themselves can feel sufficiently competent and "expert" to supervise an intern. Too, if there are few or no existing training, accountability or supervisory mechanisms among the staff, those assigned such tasks with an intern are likely to lack the skills and experience to set up effective systems. They also may find it more comfortable to "let the intern learn like I did," ignoring the differences in time between an internship and regular staff position. Participatory decision-making, consensual decision-making, and non- hierarchical or modified hierarchical structures can all create problems for interns. In addition to time and commitment, successful participation in these structures requires: listening skills; the ability to see similarities and to allow differences; a willingness to be the only person in the room who articulates a different point of view; clarity in defining and exercising one's right to say no when "no" in a consensual decision-making process is a veto: clarity in defining and exercising one's responsibility to support a majority decision in democratic decision-making. It takes a lot of verbal ability to participate, as well as information about issues and familiarity with procedures. It seems only fair that in choosing a practicum in a non- hierarchical or consensual organization interns realize the skills and abilities that effective participation in such organizations requires. Such prior knowledge can help them maintain the focus on `learning' how to participate, and in developing selected skills. More typically, the intern is left to struggle with the confusion of participating in an egalitarian structure while feeling decidedly unequal. Those working only a few hours a week in an alternative organizational structure will not have the time to participate in the key elements of the organization's process. Thus, no matter how friendly everyone is to her, the intern is likely to have an experience of being an outsider. Again, the stronger the student's expectation to experience the camaraderie of sisterhood and equality, the more painful and confusing her actual experience will be. Even if an intern is working almost full time while placed in an organization, the limited duration of the practicum prevents in-depth participation for most people. She may have the time to attend all the meetings, but she will still be without experience, knowledge and relationships to support truly equal participation. She, too, will still have the experience of being an outsider. We need to be aware of the stress created by internships that require an intense commitment and involve very complex relationships for a three month period of time. A common carryover from our socialization as women is a feeling of being responsible for meeting the needs and expectations of others. In feminist organizations, this often means we assume that if we are going to meet the needs of the women "out there," surely we must meet the needs of the women on our staff as well. From an organization's point of view, then, one problem with any intern is that she is yet another person whose needs must be met and somehow fitted into the organization's activities. For example, if an intern is shy in groups, isn't it our responsibility to help her feel more comfortable and to take the time to try to include her, to help her become more verbal and a more active participant? After all, we are in the organization both to help each other grow and to accomplish important work. The balance between those two aspects of our purpose is difficult to maintain, even more difficult when we each bring a personal compulsion to meet the needs of others. This compulsion builds a group or organizational norm which leads members to expect that their needs have a clear place in the organization's life. The burden of this dynamic on the organization should be clear. The set-up for the intern is that her situational needs (the need for supervision, the need to integrate her learning goals with the job tasks available, the need to be oriented and trained, etc.) do create a substantial demand on the organization. This fact, coupled with whatever personal needs and expectations an intern may bring, can lead the regular staff to focus resentment on her because, on both emotional levels, they do not want any additional responsibility. Remember, most feminist sites set up internships because they are desperate for help and already severely overworked. Interns are also affected by the other aspect of this personal and organizational dynamic. When the organizational norm is one of responding to all requests for help, information or assistance, whether or not they fall within the group's stated purpose, an intern may quickly find herself dealing with situations and problems that are, at best, inappropriate to her chosen learning goals and, at worst, overwhelming and scary. The group norm often does not support the refusal to "take on" the situation or problem. Ever present survival issues and a crisis orientation stemming from underfunding and overwork make successful internships difficult. Lack of long-range planning usually means that many organizations cannot guarantee that the internship originally negotiated will be the one implemented. Instead, an intern may be directed to work that is very much in reaction to immediate events and represents the "easiest" thing an intern could be asked to do. Short-range planning and the search for where the intern can fill in or be of immediate help might result in the intern's spending her time answering the phone and providing information on request. While chances are that this assignment would provide other staff with more time for more "important" work and might provide the intern with a sense of the range of women's needs in the community, it is less likely to be of enduring value to her or to the organization. In those feminist organizations attempting to equalize concrete and/or intangible rewards, two types of problems may emerge for interns. One is that the organization may feel guilty about the lack of salary and compensate by: (1) allowing the intern to do things they would not ordinarily prefer her to do (which may lead to covert resentment or an unexpected attack); and/or (2) inviting the intern to participate in meetings or activities beyond her job description so that she will at least feel included and "good" (which usually leads to confusion and rapid burnout for the intern). The other problem is that most feminist groups are terrible when it comes to praise--a key intangible reward. Usually, there is an absence of positive feedback among staff members. The intern, then, doesn't get rewarded by the formative feedback and praise she needs. And most interns don't get the other major intangible reward--that satisfaction of seeing the product of one's work and its impact. Marginality is the one characteristic of feminist organizations that offers advantages with fewer pitfalls--at least for interns. The major advantage of marginality is the greater freedom the organization may have to create internships that enable students to test out new skills and abilities, and to take on significant responsibilities. The only pitfall is that a placement in an alternative marginal organization may carry less professional weight and credibility when it comes to job hunting. III. Interns and their women's studies supervisors can take steps to avoid many of these pitfalls and to ensure a successful internship. Some of these are: 1. Pre-practicum seminars or planning sessions, where the student's intellectual and emotional needs, goals and expectations are explored, clarified and realistically modified in terms of the constraints in a time-limited experience. 2. The setting of learning rather than doing goals for the practicum. A focus on doing goals can lead to frustration when situational factors necessitate a change in the intern's assignment. A focus on learning goals can provide a basis for accepting or rejecting changes, and can provide a perspective from which to reflect on and analyze activities. 3. Practicum seminars or weekly individual meetings for the purposes of processing the personal and emotional material generated from the practicum and maintaining a focus on the student's learning goals. Such seminars and meetings can mitigate against internalizing of problems and allow students to function as participant-observers at their placement sites. 4. Prior involvement with the placement site, by the women's studies program staff, to establish minimum requirements for supervision, to explain the purpose of the internship from the academic side, and to gather information to use in deciding whether or not an organization can provide an adequate internship experience. 5. Providing (requiring) a course, seminar or module on feminist or alternative organizations prior to or simultaneous with placement at a feminist work site. In closing, there is one final point I would like to make. The strong desire to create our feminist visions now is often a block to the actual realization of those visions. We need time to define our visions more clearly, and time to develop the personal skills necessary to implement them. For me, this is a central purpose of women's studies. Our task is to teach our students to be creative rather than reactive in responding to the cultural norms, values and models that surround and are a part of us. We and our students can only move from reaction to creation by accepting, rather than denying, the problems we have and the obstacles we face, personally and organizationally. We need to encourage the acknowledgement of fears, hopes, confusions and expectations around power, leadership and equality. We need to find and teach that difficult balance between patience and gentleness with flaws, on the one hand, and demands and expectations for change, on the other. We need to validate that it makes `sense' for the changes we are seeking to be personally confusing and difficult. Not only are we struggling with the residue of our socialization around power and leadership and our experiences of their being used against women, but we are also attempting to create organizations free of the types of power and leadership most familiar to us. The role models are very scarce: our students have the right to know the complexity and enormity of the undertaking, and the cost of the superwoman, Amazon myth. TOOLS FOR GUIDING AND EVALUATING SERVICE LEARNING Patty Gibbs (I am indebted to my social work colleagues at West Virginia University for some of the conceptual material on contracting which was worked on conjointly stemming from our experience with social work seniors in their field placement.) This essay will outline and elaborate on specific strategies and learning tools for optimizing the student's service learning experience. Since it is important in service learning to (1) efficiently and effectively orient the student to the agency, (2) identify the tasks, obligations, responsibilities, and learning objectives of the student to the three primary parties (student,instructor, field supervisor), (3) assimilate the student into the agency milieu as quickly as possible, and (4) process and continually evaluate the student's performance, it is crucial to devise instruments that will guide and facilitate this process. Each of the following tools will be discussed: learning contracts, logs, journals and grading approaches. Although it is more effective and productive to utilize all of the tools in combination during the service learning experience, several factors such as structure and duration of the course itself will determine the practicality of this ideal. Choosing specific tools most suited to your individual course needs and maximally utilizing these will serve to strengthen both the direction and clarity of the experience. Learning Contracts The learning contract is one of the most essential elements for guiding service learning and providing a gauge for assessing student performance. Contracts should reflect the learning needs of the students, the educational mission of the women's studies program of which the practicum is a part, and the service needs of the agency itself. Sample learning contracts can be found in the Appendix. The learning contract should be finalized in the first few weeks of the placement. A student should begin writing a rough draft at the outset of the experience working closely with her field supervisor. The faculty-based instructor can aid students in refining the contract. Ideally the three primary parties should meet to discuss and finalize the contract. All three should sign the finalized version after it is typed which should then be duplicated so each has her own copy. The purpose of the learning contract is threefold: 1. It makes explicit for the three primary parties the roles and responsibilities of each. 2. It is a reciprocal agreement of the student's learning objectives and strategies for achieving them. 3. It forces the student from the outset into greater connectedness with the agency as she attempts to relate her learning goals to the service delivery system of that agency. (1) The contract is divided into eight parts: 1. Cover Sheet - It is helpful to have accessible basic information necessary for management of the service learning experience, and the contract cover sheet can be an invaluable time and energy saver for faculty and field supervisors alike. Some pertinent data might include: Student's name Address Home phone Service Learning Agency Address Phone Director of agency (if applicable) Field Supervisor 2. Description of Agency - This brief description will further acquaint the instructor with the agency and facilitate the student's acclimation to the agency milieu. The description should include such relevant information as: type of agency, services provided by the agency and client/consumer population served. 3. Learning Goals - The semester learning goal should reflect the ultimate purpose or interest toward which total efforts by the student will be directed. It should be service-oriented, i.e., stated in terms of services offered by the agency in which the student will become involved. The statement should include identification of the specific (or general) client/consumer population whose needs are addressed by the agency through its service delivery efforts. For example, "to provide resource and counseling services to victims of domestic violence and their families" would be an acceptable service-oriented goal statement for the student. The academic or career goal statement should explain how the service learning experience will contribute to the short-term and long-term goals of the student with regard to her education and/or career aspirations. 4. Learning Objectives - These statements are student-centered (as opposed to service-oriented learning directives) and carry subtopics (methodologies) identifying the separate efforts by the student which collectively accomplish the primary service-oriented goal. In order to clarify the difference between learning goals, objectives, and methodologies the following examples are offered: Goal - To provide family planning services (birth control information, free pregnancy tests, and unwanted-pregnancy counseling) to individuals and/or couples in the Monongalla County of West Virginia. Objective - To learn and fully understand all available birth control options for females and males. Methodology - By reading Our Bodies, Ourselves by the Boston Women's Health Collective. To formulate the objectives it is helpful for the student to ask questions about her learning needs related to the particular agency setting in terms of: (1) knowledge (what facts, information, etc., do I want/need to learn in order to function effectively in this agency?), (2) skills (what skills do I want/need to develop and refine during this experience?), and (3) attitudes (are there particular attitudes I need to modify, discard, or acquire in order to serve the client/consumer population?). The knowledge objectives may deal with, for example, particular information on domestic violence such as the cycles, the relevant statistics, the factors influencing habitual return to the husband by the victim, etc.; or students might identify certain policies/laws with which they need to become acquainted. Skill objectives might include communication skills (interviewing, active listening, empathic responses), research skills (date collection and processing), skills in organizing (such as calling and chairing meetings, networking, recruiting volunteers)--the list could go on forever. To explore attitudinal objectives students can consider the following: their own sexist conditioning that may emerge in the new work movement; or they may need to learn to respect the choice of the client or person with whom they work, as in the situation where the domestic violence victim chooses to return to her husband. Students should also expect to find themselves adopting unanticipated attitudes during the placement which could be counterproductive if not dealt with properly or rechanneled constructively. A case in point became apparent during a panel presentation at the Women's Studies Service Learning Institute. A young woman from the University of Maryland who was placed at a center for sexual assault victims spoke about her experiences in placement. As she did, the rage, and hurt elicited in her by the nature of the social problem with which she was dealing began to surface, leaving her tearful and obviously distressed. I gleaned from that experience how crucial it is for the instructor to be able to anticipate such reactions, especially in some service delivery agencies. Attitudinal objectives which identify in advance potential trouble spots and outline strategies for dealing with them will greatly benefit the student. 5. Methodologies - These are strategies, actions, methods, and procedures which will facilitate accomplishment of the objective. Each learning objective will have several methodologies listed under it that will lead to its accomplishment. For example, if the learning objective were "gaining knowledge of teenage pregnancy and its ramifications," strategies or activities to accomplish this objective might include: "reviewing the literature on the problem; reviewing any applicable research; interviewing relevant professionals who deal with the problem such as physicians, social workers; securing permission to visit a home for pregnant adolescents and interviewing them." 6. Specific Information for Managerial Purposes - This list of data is beneficial when made explicit in the contract, even if it appears to be no more than an itemized laundry list. A) student tasks/responsibilities - These should include projects expectations for record keeping, dress, meeting attendance,etc.; work hours (shift work if applicable); and any other relevant data, including information that might also be reflected in one of the learning objectives (for instance, "organizing a Big Sister Program"). B) Inclusive dates of the experience and recognized vacation days C) Identification of resources made available to the student by the agency such as supplies, travel money, work space, clerical support (if applicable), mailing privileges, training of any kind, etc. 7. Obstacles to Effective Functioning - This should be a list of possible problems of anticipated barriers that might hinder accomplishment of the objectives, including deficiencies in knowledge, skills, resources, attitude, or environmental difficulties. 8. Method of Evaluation - This section would address the criteria and methods by which the student's performance would be assessed. Periodic conferences during which the student, instructor, and field supervisor meet to review the learning contract and discuss the progress of the student might be one vehicle for assessment. Ongoing evaluation may occur during individual weekly supervisory sessions between the student and her field supervisor or faculty-based instructor. Written assignments may also be a part of the total evaluation criteria. Logs The logs contain the objective accounts by the student of her daily activities and general productivity in the agency. All other activities related to the service learning experience should also be included whether or not those activities take place in the agency itself. Examples of the latter would include extra meetings attended after work hours, reading done at night, and other tasks performed as a part of service learning although not actually carried out in the agency. There should be a dated entry which lists all activities and their purpose for every day of placement. For instance, "wrote a letter to the Department of Welfare to give them the information they required to determine Mrs. Smith's eligibility for services, a release for the information had been secured" would be a long entry that reflects both the task and the reason for doing it. Other entries might include such items as "typed address labels for our newsletter," or "answered the hotline all morning: did crisis counseling with two women." The student might then want to outline in the log the specifics of these two situations for possible discussion during a supervisory conference in order to obtain feedback on her intervention skills. The student would not, however, process her feelings about the counseling situation or apply conceptual material to the incidents and her handling of them. This is done separately in the journal which is covered in the next section. The log is specifically for entering objective accounts of activities--laundry lists so to speak--as opposed to being designed as a tool for processing the experience in any way. By reviewing the logs the instructor and field supervisor can assess whether or not the student's tasks and activities are all-inclusive and/or appropriate to the particular learning experience or intervention with the client/consumer. In this way the log serves as an instructional tool. Logs also aid the instructor in providing the agency and field supervisor with help and guidance for strengthening the learning experience by identifying activities in which the student might become engaged which are relevant to the educational mission of women's studies service learning. Journals The journal is supplemental to the log and serves as a vehicle for the personal and professional development of the student. In it the student reflects on how she feels about all facets of the experience. Through the journal the relationship of the student's placement experience to other feminist issues can be explored. Students can also utilize the journal to formulate potential corrective action strategies for the problems they come to realize are facing women as a group. The structure of the journal will depend on the structure of the service learning course itself. If there is a concurrent classroom seminar, the journal might have a slightly different focus, i.e., increased application of conceptual material to placement experiences based on readings, lectures, and so forth. Regardless, the journal is an instrument to draw together and synthesize the multiplicity of contents in the experience, and can be quite useful in a variety of ways. The faculty advisor and field supervisor may find journal material helpful in setting agendas for supervisory conferences with the student. The student may be able to get in touch with underlying realities that might have otherwise gone uncovered without consistently recording reactions from which themes might be seen to emerge. Secondly, although students may be reluctant at times to articulate certain feelings or reactions in face-to-face conference, they do it with greater ease when approached more indirectly: through the journal. A student's emotional reaction to any facet of the placement so recorded can be noticed and hopefully dealt with before it is exacerbated. In this way the journal can alert the faculty advisor and the field supervisor that a conference is in order and help the instructors to set timely agendas for the meeting. The journal is not a one-way street. It is essential that the faculty advisor give the student feedback through the journal. Making notes in the margins, giving personal comments, answering questions posed, identifying resources for further reading, or just giving the student a pat on the back for a job well done are all forms of valuable feedback for the student, particularly if there is not a co-seminar to bridge the gap between the theory and the field. In order for such feedback to be useful to the student, it should occur often and consistently. This requires that journals be turned in at least every two weeks and that instructors are conscientious about getting them back immediately to the student with their comments and/or reactions. Keeping in mind the needs of the student and expectations of the course, the instructor should devise a format for the journal that will aid the student in processing her experience and structuring her thoughts about women in contemporary society--their roles, oppression, and the social structures which perpetuate women's problems. Instructors may want to design the format to correspond with topics being covered in the co-seminar and include "study questions" under each topic for the student to consider in the journal. Particular attention should be paid to structuring the topics to coincide directly with the purposes and context of service learning. For example, the introductory topic may be "the feminist workplace," or "sexism and stereotyping," or any other foundation concept. The instructor can then provide a handout with pertinent questions for guiding the student's thoughts as she explores the topic. Such an approach should not be so inflexible as to discourage use of the journals to process other contents in the learning experience. It is important that the journal be an instrument that not only synthesizes the experience but also facilitates related intellectual and personal insights. Grading Almost universally in academe, student performance is placed on a letter-grade ledger. Individual assignments suffer this same unfortunate form of appraisal. Although these marks are supposed to be "objective," most of us who teach realize that for a variety of reasons we cannot always be as scientifically objective in our assessments as we might like to be. Often we are biased because we consider additional contingencies which should not be taken into account. Such subjectivity is certainly one of the more negative aspects of letter grading. Pass/fail grading for a course is often only begging the question of bias because if does not altogether alleviate it; such a system only allows greater latitude for instructor error. In addition, pass/fail grading does not get at the more insidious concern of the grading paradigm: the fact that for the most part grading criteria are a product of a male-centered educational concept. I feel that it is important as we teach our students to seek alternative and creative solutions/responses to the problems facing women, that we are cognizant of our responsibility to do likewise. One alternative grading schema, especially appropriate for self-directed learners using contracts and journals, places the onus of the grading problem where it belongs: with the individual student. To implement this approach, sometimes called "contract grading," instructors would establish a hierarchy of assignments to be completed for the course with those of lesser importance heading the list and proceeding to the assignment which is most difficult and comprehensive, for example, a term paper. Grades would be assigned by the instructor to the hierarchy of assignments commensurate with the degree of difficulty. Individual student assignments would be graded on a pass/fail basis and any passing paper would be counted toward meeting the grade toward which the student is working given the hierarchy; therefore, completion of the entire list of assignments would earn the student an "A," completion of all but the most difficult one would earn the student a "B," and so forth. Conclusion Educators in general have recognized that the value of learning lies in the student's ability to take all pieces of acquired knowledge and put them to use--apply them to human existence. Since learning is such a dynamic process, it requires many avenues for attainment. Women's studies service learning as an educational strategy affords the opportunity for students to engage in an exciting and meaningful learning experience where theory and practice are intricately interwoven. Because of the special nature of service learning, special educational tools and techniques are required. The ones outlined in this essay are a preliminary attempt to provide some guidance and structure as women's studies service learning continues to take shape and develop. In order to facilitate optimal learning for the student, a variety of tools are required. Learning contracts are invaluable for prompting the student to become an active and self-directed participant in her learning experience. Through formulating learning objectives the student becomes more invested in both the process and product of her learning. Journals and logs provide data useful in many respects to all parties engaged in the educational endeavor. Assignments which sharpen analytical skills lay the foundation for an approach to problem-solving critical in facilitating social change. NOTES 1. Although a learning contract is desirable and necessary for an intern working in any setting, the following description is specifically geared toward work within a social service agency. Additions, deletions and substitutions should be made where needed, for students working in government and public policy or business agencies. ************************ APPENDIX Inventory of Knowledge, Skills and Attitude Objectives (1) Along with defining the parameters of women's studies service learning, the instructor must also be able to provide direction for the tasks and responsibilities that face both the student and the field supervisor. Providing direction to the student involves helping formulate the desired learning outcomes. To do this we must first decide what we want students to know as a result of service learning. Additionally we must ask: what do we want students to be able to do? Are there underlying attitudinal objectives we want students to achieve related to the goals and philosophy of feminist field experience? The answers to these questions crystallize a tripartite model for categorizing student learning: knowledge, skill and attitude objectives. What follows is an outline of those objectives in a form intended to provide a blueprint for instructors of service-learning courses in women's studies. Although this inventory may appear at first glance to be rather ambitious, a closer look will reveal that such expectations are not out of line with the broader goals of women's studies service-learning. If we are interested in educating social change agents who will be effective in their mission, then it is clear that we need to explicate all of the objectives which we want students to meet through their experience. Further, feminist education has been committed to testing out new curricular approaches while remaining sensitive to the need for strengthening the legitimacy and credibility of the learning program. The proposed inventory serves as a starting point for service learning educators to modify as necessary in assessing the needs of their particular academic situation. Inventory of Knowledge Objectives A. Knowledge of the Organizational Context 1. Knowledge of the agency The student should be able to: 1.1 Explain and describe the agency's purpose, programs, focus, goals. 1.2 Demonstrate a working knowledge of the agency policies and procedures. 1.3 Identify limitations of services or service gaps. 1.4 Identify and appraise the formal and informal structure of the agency. 1.5 Describe the relationship of the agency to other service organizations in the community. 1.6 Compare the agency structure to the ideal feminist workplace. 1.7 Relate one's own activities to the broader goals of the agency. 2. Knowledge of the agency as an organization The student should be able to: 2.1 Discuss the impact of the agency structure (hierarchical vs.lateral) on agency functioning, citing both functional and dysfunctional aspects of each organizational model. 2.2 Describe the characteristics of a feminist workplace. 2.3 Discern the difference between informal, collaborative, consensual decision-making and decision-making based on a model of power and domination. 2.4 Describe the difference between a bureaucratic approach and a collective approach to task accomplishment. 2.5 Explain the role and function of organizations in contemporary society. 2.6 Understand the difference with regard to service delivery between organizations as means and organizations as ends. 2.7 Discuss the impact of organizational structure on the individual worker. 2.8 Understand the organization as instrumental to social change. B. Knowledge of the Community Context of Service Learning 3. Characteristics of the community The student should be able to: 3.1 Describe the structures and processes (e.g., government, industry, politics, etc.) of the community. 3.2 Understand the needs and characteristics of any distinct population in the community and identify the influences which make them unique (e.g., rural poor, minority ghetto, etc.). 3.3 Assess the needs and concerns of that portion of the community to be served by the agency. 4. Knowledge of resource systems The student should be able to: 4.1 Identify the major ways needs are met, stress is alleviated, and concerns are dealt with in the community. 4.2 Demonstrate a working knowledge of the resources available in the community that are appropriate for the service of the agency. 4.3 Understand the importance of and the difference between formal and informal resources. 4.4 Describe self-help as an approach for meeting human need and explain its relationship to more formal and structured resources/services. C. Knowledge of Intervention 5. The steps of the problem-solving process The student should be able to understand and distinguish between each of the following: 5.1 Initial contact or involvement with the problem situation. 5.2 Assessment of the situation based on inputs from the client, significant others, or any other source of data. 5.3 Definition of the problem(s): immediate--precipitated the contact by the client with the service, underlying--factors that are perpetuating or influencing the immediate problem, obstacles to change--factors that stand in the way of problem solution and need to be dealt with if change is to occur. 5.4 Goal identification--both short-term and long-term. 5.5 Selection of strategies to achieve goals. 5.6 Agreement with client/consumer on the roles and responsibilities of all participants in the intervention. 5.7 Implementation of the plan and termination of the service when goals are achieved. 5.8 Evaluation of outcome of service, i.e., was the intervention successful or not? 5.9 Possible follow-up to see if change is being maintained. D. Knowledge of Communication 6. Communication process The student will have a working knowledge of: 6.1 Components of communication: sender, message, factors that color or distort the message (such as receiver's value system), and receiver. 6.2 Verbal and non-verbal communication, the importance of each, and the need for congruence. 6.3 Characteristics of effective communication. E. Knowledge about Social Change 7. Achieving social change The student should be able to discuss: 7.1 Factors that promote process of change. 7.2 Factors that hinder change and contribute to the status quo. 7.3 Different levels of change, personal vs. societal. F. Knowledge of Feminist Perspective 8. Sexist society and feminist resolution The student should be able to: 8.1 Identify the social forces that shape the lives of women in general (and the student's life in particular), differentiating personal and societal responsibility in shaping self. 8.2 Recognize instances of sexism in everyday life, i.e., in the media, interpersonal relationships, encounters with societal institutions, etc. 8.3 Compare the parallel of discrimination based on sex with discrimination against other minority groups. 8.4 Understand the multidisciplinary approach to studying and acting on the concerns of women. 8.5 Demonstrate an ability to apply theory to practice. 8.6 Discuss the male orientation in our culture and describe how this impacts methodology in a variety of fields of study. 8.7 Discuss how sexism (in whatever manifestation) impacts on individuals, identifying conversely how the effects of sexism in individuals tend to maintain and perpetuate a sexist society (i.e., how sexist individuals impact the institutions to which they belong). Inventory of Skill Objectives A. Communication Skills 1. Skill in interviewing The student should be able to: 1.1 Establish rapport and build trust as a part of the helping relationship. 1.2 Demonstrate sensitivity to the non-verbal communication of others as a source of information. 1.3 Purposefully use good eye contact, appropriate gestures and facial expression, comfortable yet alert body posture, and well-modulated, fluent vocal qualities when working with others. 1.4 Listen effectively to others. 1.5 Gather information, interpret information, and appropriately share information with others as a part of delivering services to clients/consumers. 2. Skill in written communication The student should be able to: 2.1 Write letters effectively as a means to achieve predetermined goals. 2.2 Use agency forms to gather data without allowing such structure to interfere with the interpersonal nature of the helping relationship. 2.3 Record activities in case records to ensure continuity of service (if applicable). 2.4 Prepare written work in clear, fluent, and understandable language. B. Helping Relationship Skills 3. Skill in use of self The student should be able to: 3.1 Utilize assertion as a tool for both enhancing self-development and enacting broader social change. 3.2 Function with self-confidence and self-reliance. 3.3 Accept and act on feedback from others. 3.4 Effectively express oneself appropriate to the situation, whether formal or informal. 3.5 Recognize one's own limitations. 3.6 Organize time and tasks effectively. 3.7 Deal with ambiguity productively so that structure can emerge. 3.8 Utilize supervision and consultation with others. 3.9 Function in a leadership capacity when called for. 4. Skill in the problem-solving process The student should be able to: 4.1 Identify and assess the problem(s). 4.2 Detect the antecedent conditions and causative factors influencing and maintaining the problem situation. 4.3 Identify available resources, strengths, and motivations for problem resolution. 4.4 Involve the client/consumer in all phases of the intervention effort. 4.5 Generate alternative solutions and creative responses to the identified problems. 4.6 Set goals which can be realistically achieved. 4.7 Identify concrete and action-oriented short-term and long-term goals with priorities for their achievement. 4.8 Generate a variety of methods and strategies to successfully accomplish goals. 4.90 Establish a timetable for the work. 4.91 Carry out the activities as planned. 4.92 Coordinate and monitor all facets of the intervention effort. 4.93 Evaluate service effectiveness. 4.94 Modify service efforts/programs based on evaluation. 5. Skill in working with clients/consumers The student should be able to: 5.1 Develop a supportive and non-judgmental climate for facilitating all work with others. 5.2 Engage clients/consumers in a way that demonstrates great sensitivity to their needs and individual differences. 5.3 Table one's own biases and agendas when working with others. 5.4 Maintain flexibility in one's style in order to avoid alienating any client/consumer (e.g., avoiding talking over the client's head while at the same time being cautious about not talking down to them). 5.5 Functioning as an enabler and facilitator in the growth/change process of others. 5.6 Helping others gain a better understanding of their situation without diagnosing, labeling, or trying to uncover "unconscious" motivations. 5.7 Demonstrate sensitivity to one's own and the client's feelings surrounding the termination of services when goals have been achieved. 5.8 Plan strategies that will ensure that the achieved change will remain stable after termination of services. 5.9 Utilize follow-up as a means for monitoring maintenance of achieved change. 6. Skill in the use of groups The student should be able to: 6.1 Use groups as a vehicle to promote individual change. 6.2 Mobilize groups to accomplish tasks which could not be accomplished by individuals alone. 7. Skill in locating, developing, and/or utilizing resources The student should be able to: 7.1 Negotiate both formal and informal channels to discover available resources and the services they perform. 7.2 Utilize formal and informal networks as resources (i.e., agency-based vs. family support systems or self-help groups, etc.). 7.3 Refer clients to other resources. 7.4 Develop resources that will address unmet needs in the community (an example might be to develop a support network for divorced women). 7.5 Interpret the needs of clients/consumers to established agencies which might be capable of meeting those needs. 7.6 Identify gaps in services. 8. Analytical skills The student should be able to: 8.1 Critically assess conditions in the environment (interpersonal, developmental, social, cultural, psychological) which contribute to maintenance of the problems being dealt with. 8.2 Distinguish between fact and distortion of fact (propaganda, stereo-types, etc.). 8.3 Substantiate conclusions with appropriate and adequate evidence and data. 8.4 Exercise inductive and deductive thinking. 8.5 Determine what data is needed and how best to collect it. 8.6 Manage and order data. 8.7 Discover relationships between data. 9. Skills in effecting change The student should be able to: 9.1 Develop leadership in indigenous populations. 9.2 Productively advocate for others in any way possible that will serve to better meet their needs (i.e., changes in laws and policies, exceptions to laws and policies, motivate client to exercise her rights, etc.). 9.3 Reach out to clients who may not have initiated contact but whose needs have become apparent to the agency. 9.4 Help others by teaching them useful skills (parenting skills, technical skills, employment skills, etc.). 9.5 Develop community education programs as a means to effect change. 9.6 Utilize organizational contexts to promote social change. 9.7 Maximize one's own skills and abilities to be directed toward change efforts. Inventory of Attitudinal Objectives 1. Attitudes related to self The student should work toward: 1.1 Developing confidence in one's own abilities and skills. 1.2 Increasing self-esteem, strengthening self-concept, and achieving personal power. 1.3 Developing pride in one's work and achievements. 1.4 Receptivity to cooperative work and collective efforts. 1.5 Accepting responsibility for controlling one's own life in every way possible. 2. Attitudes related to others The student should work toward: 2.1 Respecting the worth, dignity, and individuality of human beings. 2.2 Appreciating and being sensitive to the needs of others. 2.3 Valuing the right of others to make their own choices. 2.4 Becoming non-judgmental and able to accept differences in others with regard to socioeconomic class, race, age, sex, lifestyle, or sexual preference. 2.5 Investing in trust building between women. 3. Attitudes related to change The student should work toward: 3.1 Developing a strengthened feminist perspective. 3.2 Realizing the fallacy of fixed and dogmatic precepts for understanding the condition of women. 3.3 Willingness to revise opinions, judgments, etc., in light of new evidence. 3.4 Adherence to the conviction that equality for women is a desirable social reform. 3.5 Commitment to improvement of the condition of women. Note Of interest to both service learning instructors and their field supervisors is "Supervision: A Sharing Process," by Delores M. Schmidt, Child Welfare, Vol. III(7), July 1973. NOTE 1. See also, "Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes Students Acquire from Women's Studies: Published Research," in Women's Studies Graduates, Elaine Reuben and Mary Jo Boehm Strauss, NIE Publications, September, 1980. ASSESSMENT OF SERVICE LEARNING: STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT AND PROGRAM EFFECTIVENESS Nancy Ashton Evaluative measurement is very important to running an effective service learning program. I will discuss the process of assessment by describing two different but related aspects of evaluation: 1. Assessment of each student's field experience and performance 2. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a service learning course or program Evaluation can be tailor-made for individual students and for each service learning program. In each case, one needs to consider the following questions: - What are the purposes of the evaluation? - What criteria will be used to measure the individual student or program? - How will information relevant to the criteria be collected and analyzed? - Who will have access to the final evaluation? Evaluation of Students The obvious reason for gathering information about a student's field experience is that she is getting credit and generally, a grade for the course. But ongoing evaluation feedback should be provided to the student during her placement so she can improve her performance if necessary. The evaluation of the student's work accomplishments, personal development, knowledge and skill is also helpful in providing the student with some manageable assessment of what she has learned and accomplished during her field experience. Finally, material from student evaluations can also be useful in entire service learning or program. Learning Goals and Objectives The process of assessing the performance and experience of students is fairly easy and straightforward if each step in the process if followed sequentially. Step One: The student generates learning goals and objectives in collaboration with her faculty and placement supervisors. The objectives should be pedagogically sound, they must relate to some public (service) need, and they must be individualized to fit each student's skills and desired goals. Step Two: A learning contract should be developed that states the goals, the objective behaviors to be undertaken in working toward those goals, how and by whom the student will be evaluated, the criteria to be used, and the time frame involved. To develop the contract the student will also need a prior analysis of the job at the particular placement site, an analysis of what knowledge, skills and attitudes she brings to the field experience and what she hopes to gain, as well as what the placement sponsors will hold her responsible for accomplishing (these should all have been completed at the time of the student-placement matching process). An example of this contract follows: Goal Criteria for Behaviors Evaluator Assessing Growth _________________________________________________________________________ To write letter Improvement in Writes reports Field and writing and other faculty written work supervisors Be able to Test measuring Studies the Field understand and knowledge of the law and uses supervisor use Title IX law it in case applications Become more Ratings of student Gives 3-4 pre- Self and confident in presentations sentations to field speaking before community supervisor large groups groups Feel better Psychological Rewards self Self and about myself measure of self- for accompli- supervisor esteem shments, asks for construct- ive feedback To know List appropriate Composes Field community resources for referral supervisor resources for women in case booklet women in crisis studies __________________________________________________________________ It is important to reiterate that many aspects of the experience will be evaluated. Service learning is especially distinct from traditional classroom evaluation of students in that aspects of learning, in addition to cognitive acquisition (new skills, values clarification and attitude changes) are assessed. The specific skills and objectives outlined in the learning contract will also be stated in the mid-term and final evaluations. Each of the goals of the learning contract will be evaluated according to the agreement reached by the three individuals involved: some behaviors to be evaluated by the placement supervisor, some by the faculty supervisor, some by the student, and most by some combination of the participating parties. Step Three: Conduct a mid-term evaluation to measure the student's progress. Constructively go over this with her providing a guide post for her progress. Modify the contract if it seems unworkable. Step Four: Conduct final evaluation and share it with the student. Measurement Techniques Both supervisors can submit `ratings' of the student that either follow a structured format of specific questions assessing pertinent attributes, or a more `global overall evaluation.' Ideally, on-site observations can be made by the faculty supervisor in addition to the regular monitoring done by the placement supervisor. The faculty supervisor also meets with the student periodically on campus for discussions of the field experience. Meetings can include `co-seminar sessions' and/or individual, dyadic or small groups (depending on institutional possibilities). The student herself can provide important data. Possible activities include: maintaining a `diary or journal' analyzing her performance and her experiences at the placement, or a series of `critical incident reports' in which she describes several incidents throughout the field service experience. These reports should describe how the student responded in each specific situation and what she believes she learned or gained from the incident. The student could also write a lengthy `self-analysis' of her experiences and/or provide a `report of her accomplishments.' Some service learning contracts may include `specific products' to be completed by the student such as reports, self-evaluations, grant applications, research papers or even examinations covering pertinent concepts and methods. Use of `standardized assessment scales' can measure attitude changes, skill acquisition or accumulated knowledge. For more information on validated measure see "Women and Women's Issues: Handbook of Tests and Measurements" by C.A. Beere (Jossey-Bass, 1979) and "Measures of Educational Equity" for Women by K.L. Williams, B.J. Parks and C.J. Finley (American Institutes for Research, 1977), and materials available from CAEL, listed among the Selected Bibliography in this Handbook. Service Learning Program Evaluation The second area of evaluation may not seem to be as immediately relevant or important as the student evaluation, but it is necessary and advantageous for a number of reasons. Evaluation of the entire service learning program can be used to determine how well the goals of the program are being met. Information on the effectiveness of the program can be used to improve future programming, to make decisions about modifications of the program for college administrators, or to justify increased funding and other institutional resources and support. Thus, there are several potential audiences for whom the evaluation results may be available. `Clearly defined goals' are as necessary for this evaluation process as they were for the assessment of the students. It is advisable to set `short-term and long-term objectives' ahead of time and to set up ways to evaluate each one. All (or at least many!) aspects of the program should be evaluated, including such components as: pre-placement orientation and training of students, the process of student-placement match, satisfaction of placement agencies, impact on students and, if possible, impact on the community (such as a client group that the agency serves), adequacy of supervision, co-seminar experience and perhaps a cost-benefit assessment. The program personnel must define measurable goals and objectives of the entire service learning program, then devise ways to measure and quantify the activities and outcomes relating to the objectives, then collect and analyze the necessary information to assess accomplishment of the goals and objectives and communicate the results to the appropriate groups and individuals. This evaluation process must be constructed in line with a given program's goals and resources. In addition to an assessment of the actual outcomes in relation to the planned/hoped-for outcomes, it is also possible to evaluate the course or program over time in order to analyze the effect of other structural changes on the service learning component. One can also use a contrast-group design in which a comparison is made of service learning students with similar students not involved in the program. Some general data sources include `existing records' from the program, the school and the placement agencies; `information from the program participants' (students, placement, staff, clients of the placement agencies, faculty); and `experts' who are brought in to rate, test or observe the students and the program functioning. I recommend multiple measures to provide a "rich" evaluation using many modes of assessment. This will be more helpful to the program and also allows for the possibility that some measures will indicate successful attainment of program goals while other measures may be more ambiguous or may even show failure. Realistic definition of specific objectives will facilitate valid evaluation of separate components and goals. Evaluation of Service Learning Examples: Objectives Ways to Assess Increase feminist consciousness Give students one of the feminism of participating students scales that have been validated. Could compare their results with students not in the program. Train students to be able to Assess student oral or written support a feminist position presentation of an argument on a with evidence particular topic Provide students with Total the number of participating opportunity to learn job students and summarize the overall relate skills evaluations (by placement supervisors) of their job performance. Follow up students for future job placements. Help students see the Have students fill out an connections between Women's evaluation form. Studies and social action The goal-setting phase completes much of the necessary background work for program evaluation. The choice of measurement indices can be varied for each individual and program, and these follow directly from the goals. Once these steps are taken, completion of evaluation is very easy, and it provides invaluable feedback for the student and the program. EVALUATING SERVICE LEARNING PROGRAMS IN WOMEN'S STUDIES Ruth B. Ekstrom Service learning programs in women's studies involve experiential learning through placement in an organization or agency that is working for social change for women. Evaluation of service learning programs in women's studies combines the problems of evaluating women's studies programs and the problems of evaluating experiential learning programs. In this paper I use the term evaluation to mean determining if and how well the goals of a program have been met. I will differentiate between two-types of evaluation: (1) formative evaluation, which is intended to help develop or improve the program, and (2) summative evaluation, which is intended to judge the overall effectiveness of the program. Evaluation Plan: Before evaluation can begin, an evaluation plan must be developed. This plan should cover the following questions: 1. What are the purposes of the evaluation? Examples: Should the program be continued? Should the program be redefined or priorities changed? How effectively is the program operating? Should personnel/resources be reallocated? 2. What performance standards will be used to determine if the stated goals have been achieved? Need to specify criteria and relate them to objectives. Need to specify the amount and direction of change/difference that will be considered as indicators of success. 3. What information/data will be collected and how? Need to select or develop instruments. Need to decide who will provide information. Need to get cooperation from all who will be involved. Need to decide on time schedule and individuals responsible for data collection. 4. How will the information/data be processed and analyzed? If more than compiling and summarizing is involved, analytical procedures must be selected (assistance from evaluation specialists may be needed). 5. To whom and how will the evaluation data be reported? Need to include all involved/interested individuals--program personnel, other college staff, students, business and organizations, funding agencies, other colleges with similar programs, etc. Brochures, newsletters, speeches, etc., may be needed as well as formal reports. 6. How much will the evaluation cost? Need to set up a budget for all activities. Purposes of Evaluation: It is important for you to think about why you are doing the evaluation before you begin to collect any information. Different kinds of information are needed to answer different questions. It is also important, at this point, to think about who will receive the evaluation information. Different kinds of information are needed if the Women's Studies faculty is revising the service learning program than if the information must be presented to the administration or a funding agency to obtain money for program support. Goals and Performance Standards: Specifying program goals is the first step in beginning an evaluation. A process for developing and ranking goals in women's studies is described in Guttentag et al. (1979). Two kinds of goals are involved in service learning: (1) new knowledge and skills (cognitive goals); and (2) new attitudes, beliefs, and values (non-cognitive goals). Table 1 shows some abilities that liberal arts students might acquire in experiential learning. Sometimes goal statements for service learning programs have already been developed as part of learning contracts between the student and the faculty member supervising the program. Two sample activity sheets for contract learning are shown in Figure 1. Learning contracts usually specify: (l) the goal(s) or objectives(s) of the learning experience; (2) the activities that will be done as part of this experience; (3) the product that will be prepared by the learner; (4) the criteria that will be used to evaluate the product; and (5) the time frame in which the experience will occur. Such learning contracts are useful because they help define for the student `why' they are doing the activities in the service learning experience. Another form of goal statements is competency lists, such as the "I Can" lists (Ekstrom, Harris and Lockheed, 1977). An example of part of one list, for Advocate/Change Agent, is given in Table 2. Although this list was developed to identify prior learning competencies of adult women who have done volunteer work and community service, it is equally applicable for defining the goals of sponsored experiential learning programs for college students. The next step is to decide what kind of standard you will use to determine if the goals have been achieved. You may have an `absolute' standard (the student will be able to do the following things; the student will achieve a specified test score), a `growth-based' standard (the student will show an improvement in ability to do the following things; the student will show an increase in self- confidence), or a `comparison-based' standard (the women's studies service learning student will score higher than similar students who were not enrolled in the program). Table 1 Some Possible Goals of Service Learning Cognitive Ability to: Analyze quantitative data Build a conceptual model Design an experiment or experience Develop a comprehensive plan Experiment with new ideas/techniques Gather facts and information Generate alternatives Imagine the implications of an action Make decisions Organize information Set goals See how things fit into the "big picture" Test theories and ideas Noncognitive Ability to: Adapt to change Be personally involved Be sensitive to people's feelings Be sensitive to values Commit oneself to objectives Deal with people Influence and lead others Listen with an open mind Seek and exploit opportunities Work in groups (Adapted from Fry and Kolb (1979)) Table 2 Advocate/Change Agent Advocacy is an activity on behalf of an individual, a group, or an issue which is designed to improve conditions, programs, or services. Advocates working areas such as legal rights, housing, education, environment, and social welfare and attempt to change or improve existing conditions. In carrying out my work as an advocate/change agent, I can: - Identify areas where change is needed (see `Problem Surveyor' for related skills ) - Select methods and data which will document the need for change (see `Researcher' and `Problem Surveyor' for related skills) - Define and delimit the basic issues in a problem area - Demonstrate knowledge of the basic concepts relevant to an issue in fields such as: - legal rights (civil and criminal) - housing and community planning - education - environment - welfare and social services - Describe the public policy issues relevant to a problem - Demonstrate knowledge of the processes of change using: - theoretical model(s) - real-life examples - Describe methods which can be used to bring about change including: - lobbying - political campaigns - public relation Evaluation Design. The design is closely related to the goals and standards. An absolute standard will require only one administration of whatever tests or measures are used; this will typically be done at the end of the program. A growth-based standard means that the student must be tested twice, once when s/he enters the service learning program and again when s/he finishes it (pre- and post-testing). A comparison based standard also involves pre- and post-testing of the students in the service learning program. Tests should also be given, at the same time, to a similar (comparison) group of students. The comparison group might be students enrolled in other kinds of field work experiences, students in other women's studies courses, or students who are taking other kinds of courses related to the service learning program (e.g., sociology). Sometimes comparison studies are done only with a single testing at the end of the program. The problem with this design is that you cannot tell if the service learning students and comparison group students were different before the start of the program. Kinds of Measurement There are several different ways to measure the outcomes of experiential learning. These include: - Standardized or Existing Tests: The chief advantages are its ease and that the results can be used to compare the students with individuals in other schools and colleges. Another advantage is that the results may be more readily accepted by people outside of the women's studies program. The chief disadvantage is that there are few standardized tests appropriate for evaluating women's studies programs and service learning. There are three good sources of existing tests to use in women's studies programs. These are: the American Institutes for Research's "Sourcebook on Measures of Women's Educational Equity", their "Measures of Educational Equity for Women", and Beere's "Women and Women's Issues: A Handbook of Tests." - Locally Made Tests: The advantage of this approach is that the test can be made more specific to the goals of a particular program. While you may be able to use local tests to compare women's studies students with other students on your campus, you rarely can use local tests to make comparisons across campuses. Another disadvantage of locally made tests is the time and effort required for test development. - Demonstrations or Simulations: This involves having the student show others how s/he does something. A demonstration involves a real situation (such as watching the student counsel other women) or a videotape of the real situation. A simulation involves acting out a situation (asking the student to show how s/he would counsel for certain hypothetical problems). In both cases one or more judges or raters are asked to watch what is being done and to use a rating scale to indicate the quality of the student's performance. - Essay/Portfolio/Diary: The chief advantage of this approach is its individuality and flexibility. However, this also makes it more difficult to make comparisons across students. If an essay, portfolio or diary is used, it is important to specify the expected content and how it will be graded. Essays, port-folios, and diaries are usually used in a single, post-test experimental design and are rated against an absolute standard. Tests and ratings are easier to use in pre- and post-designs that involve measuring growth or making comparisons across groups. Types of Tests and Measures Most teachers are familiar with the use of multiple-choice tests or essays to measure knowledge so I will not discuss this here. Instead, I will concentrate on noncognitive measurement involving attitudes. There are four methods commonly used in attitude measurement: - Unobtrusive Measures: This involves obtaining information without the subjects' awareness. It includes the use of physical evidence (e.g., which books show the most wear), archives and records (e.g., who requested counseling), and observations (e.g., who uses certain tools or exhibits certain kinds of behavior). - Ratings by Others: These are used in observations, demonstrations and simulations. Rating scales are selected or constructed. These scales help to define the standards and objectives for the judges. In using ratings by others, it is important to be sure that all judges are using the same criteria. One common problem is that judges tend to get a general impression of the student and mark everything high ("halo effect") or low instead of treating each item on the rating scale separately. Also, ratings by others may be invalid if the raters suspect that it may also be used to rate them (e.g., pupil ratings done by a teacher may be distorted if the teacher thinks that these ratings may affect her/his salary). - Self Report: This is probably the most widely used method of attitude measurement. The advantage of self-ratings is that the individual has better insight into her/his own attitudes than an observer. The chief disadvantage is that the individual can usually determine the purpose of the evaluation and make responses that s/he things are expected rather than what s/he truly believes. - Disguised Techniques: These involve asking someone to complete several sentences or a story or to tell a story in response to a picture. This kind of measure is often difficult to validate. One common problem is that people react to parts of the story or picture that were not intended to be the main stimulus. Making Your Own Tests and Rating Scales If you decide to develop your own tests or scales, there are six basic steps in the process: 1. Develop a test "blueprint." This should be an outline of all the subject areas or topics to be covered and some kind of indication of the relative importance of each topic. 2. Decide on the kind(s) of test(s) or test items that you will use for each area (see the next section for examples) and write draft items and scales. It is usually wise to write more items than you need. 3. Review the items and scales (or have someone else review them) to see that you have covered all the topics in your "blueprint," that the items and instructions are clear and easily understood and that there are no errors of fact. 4. Try out the items or scales. Pick a group of people that are as much as possible like the group who will finally use the test. 5. Review the test for reliability and validity. Reliability means that a test measures the same thing consistently; people who take the test more than once will not get very different scores unless they have learned more about what the test measures in the period between the two tests. If a test has a group of items about a given topic, one way of measuring reliability is to compare (correlate) scores on the odd-numbered items with scores on the even-numbered items. Validity means that a test measures what it is supposed to measure. This usually involves using some kind of external criterion standard. For example, a scale of attitudes toward feminism might be validated by showing that women who support ERA or who are members of a feminist group, such as NOW, score higher than women who oppose ERA or who do not belong to a feminist group. You may also want to compare each test item or scale with the score on the entire test or group of tests. 6. Discard items and scales that do not appear to be reliable or valid or that do not work as you had expected. Reassemble your final items according to your test blueprint. If you do develop your own tests, especially if they work well for you, it is important for you to share them with others. Be sure to explain, when you share a test, the kind of program for which it was designed. Two of the most commonly used techniques for getting self ratings or ratings by others are the `Likert-type Scale' and the `Semantic Differential'. The Likert scale involves statements which are rated on five points. (The typical scale is 5 = strongly agree; 4 = agree; 3 = not sure; 2 = disagree;and 1 = strongly disagree. Some people use a four point scale and eliminate "not sure" to force people to take a side.) When writing or selecting statements for a Likert scale, avoid neutral statements and avoid compound or complex sentences. Be sure to use both positive and negative statements. Try to vary the sentence structure but keep the vocabulary understandable. Sample Likert-type items (taken from the Questionnaire on the Occupational Status of Women) are: No man really prefers to have a female boss. Complete equality for women is unrealistic. Women need more alternatives for employment than are currently open to them. The Semantic Differential is based on a set of bi-polar scales against which a stimulus is rated. Most Semantic Differential scales are answered by putting a checkmark somewhere along a seven point scale. A typical item might be: Women bosses are: Good |______|______|______|______|______|______|______| Bad Strong |______|______|______|______|______|______|______| Weak Give in |______|______|______|______|______|______|______| Stubborn Semantic Differentials are relatively easy to construct and to score. These scales tend to be fairly reliable. However, if the scales are too long the people taking them tend to get bored. One author recommends that there be no more than 15 stimuli (such as "women bosses") and no more than 15 to 20 bi-polar characteristics (such as good-bad) on which each is rated. An Example of Evaluation in Women's Studies. One well-known evaluation in women's studies is Project WELD (Formative Evaluation Research Associates, 1977). This was a study of internships, women's studies courses, and skill development classes in eight schools. The attributes studied in Project WELD are listed in Table 3. These attributes were measured by an Experience Inventory, shown in Table 4. Table 3 Attributes Evaluated Assertiveness skills Professional/technical skills Communication skills Sense of women's historical past Decision-making skills Sense of women's present Discrimination-coping skills Your creativity Feminist perspective Your independence Leadership skills Your openness to new experiences New career goals Your personal potential Personal role models Your professional potential Professional female Your risk-taking role models Professional male Your self-confidence role models Table 4 EXPERIENCE INVENTORY INSTRUCTIONS: Below is a learning inventory of skills and qualities which students may or may not gain as participants in your program. This form seeks your assessment of whether opportunities exist for the development of these skills and qualities and your assessment of the quality of student experience. If you can think of additional skills or qualities, please add them at the bottom of the inventory. Have the following been increased or affected | Traditional | by your experience in: | Curriculum | | | |Yes Quality* No| |Yes Quality* No| -----------------------------|---------------|---|---------------| | |Sense of women's | | | | | | | | | |historical past | | | | | | | | | |-------------------------|---|-------|---|---|---|-------|---| | |Sense of women's present | | | | | | | | |I |-------------------------|---|-------|---|---|---|-------|---| |D |Feminist perspective | | | | | | | | |E |Professional female | | | | | | | | |A |role models | | | | | | | | |S |-------------------------|---|-------|---|---|---|-------|---| | |Professional male | | | | | | | | | |role models | | | | | | | | | |-------------------------|---|-------|---|---|---|-------|---| | |Personal role models | | | | | | | | -----------------------------|---|-------|---|---|---|-------|---| | |New career goals | | | | | | | | | |-------------------------|---|-------|---|---|---|-------|---| | |Assertiveness skills | | | | | | | | | |-------------------------|---|-------|---|---|---|-------|---| |S |Leadership skills | | | | | | | | |K |-------------------------|---|-------|---|---|---|-------|---| |I |Communication skills | | | | | | | | |L |-------------------------|---|-------|---|---|---|-------|---| |L |Decision-making skills | | | | | | | | |S |-------------------------|---|-------|---|---|---|-------|---| | |Professional/technical | | | | | | | | | |-------------------------|---|-------|---|---|---|-------|---| | |Discrimination coping | | | | | | | | | |skills | | | | | | | | -----------------------------|---|-------|---|---|---|-------|---| | |Your self-confidence | | | | | | | | | |-----------------------------|-------|---|---|---|-------|---| | |Your independence | | | | | | | | |A |-----------------------------|-------|---|---|---|-------|---| |T |Your risk-taking | | | | | | | | |T |-------------------------|---|-------|---|---|---|-------|---| |I |Your openness to new | | | | | | | | |T |experiences | | | | | | | | |U |-------------------------|---|-------|---|---|---|-------|---| |D |Your creativity | | | | | | | | |E |-------------------------|---|-------|---|---|---|-------|---| |S |Your personal potential | | | | | | | | | |-------------------------|---|-------|---|---|---|-------|---| | |Your professional | | | | | | | | | |potential | | | | | | | | -----------------------------|---|-------|---|---|---|-------|---| | |Other | | | | | | | | | |Other | | | | | | | | ------------------------------------------------------------------ *Quality Scale: 5 = Excellent 3 = Good 1 = Poor 4 = Very Good 2 = Fair 0 = Not Applicable In addition to completing the experience inventory, the WELD students were asked to list the strengths and weaknesses of the program, to list ways in which the program could be improved, to rate their satisfaction with the program, to rate the impact that the program had on them, and to compare the program's impact with the rest of their educational experience. Data Collection and Analysis Sometimes available information (from existing tests and records) can be used instead of collecting data for evaluation. The chief advantage of using available data is that it is easy to do. However, there are also problems. Available data may not be complete or it may vary so much from one type of placement to another that meaningful comparisons are impossible. Once you have developed or selected the tests and other data collection instruments (such as questionnaires), you must decide who will provide the data. It is not always necessary to obtain all information from all students, especially if large numbers of students or several colleges are involved. In evaluating a small program in a single college, however, it is probably wisest to collect information from all program participants. Project WELD compared students in three kinds of programs in eight schools. To do this they selected a random sample of 270 students who had been involved in each kind of program; each of these students completed a questionnaire. In addition, the project obtained information from 50 faculty members and from 25 intern employers. Interviews can be used instead of questionnaires if you are dealing with a relatively small group of students. Interviews are especially helpful informative evaluation where you may not always know all the possible answers. In addition, people are often more comfortable in confiding sensitive information to an interviewer than they would be in writing it down on a questionnaire. Also, an interviewer can ask additional, follow-up questions depending on a previous response. Data analysis in an evaluation does not have to be complicated. In Project WELD, the analysis included the percentage of students in each program answering "Yes" to each attribute item on the Experience Inventory, the average quality rating for each attribute item in each of the three programs, the percentage of students giving each impact rating, and the percentage of students giving each satisfaction rating. In addition, the number and percentage of students suggesting specific types of program improvements or additions was shown. Computations showing the significance of the differences between percentages and average ratings of programs is sometimes used in evaluations. If you want to try some more elaborate data analysis techniques, you will find books like Anderson, Ball and Murphy's Encyclopedia of Educational Evaluation or Guttentag and Struening's Handbook of Evaluation Research helpful. Evaluation data should be reported in such a way that it is impossible to identify a given individual. Many evaluations also combine data so that a given course, placement or school cannot be identified. Reporting Data The information from the evaluation should be shared with others. Just who these people are depends on the purpose of your evaluation. Typically, all of the individuals involved in the women's studies service learning program (students, faculty, and agencies/organizations providing the placements) will be given a copy of the evaluation report. In addition, copies (sometimes shortened, edited, "executive summary" versions) may also be sent to deans and other administrators. If the service learning program has been supported by funds from the institution, Federal or State programs, or a foundation, these people should also share the information. Evaluation information is, indeed, often required when a program has received Federal money. Finally, it is important that you share your evaluation instruments and outcomes with other women's studies service learning programs. References and Resources American Institutes for Research. Sourcebook on Measures of Women's Educational Equity. Palo Alto, CA: American Institutes for Research, 1979. Anderson, S.B.; Ball, S.; and Murphy, R.T. Encyclopedia of Educational Evaluation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1975. Beere, C.A. Women and Women's Issues: A Handbook of Tests. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1979. Bose, C. E., and Priest-Jones, J. The Relationship Between Women's Studies,Career Development, and Vocational Choice. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Education, in press. Ekstrom, R.B; Harris, A.M.; and Lockheed, M.E. How to Get College Credit for What You Have Learned as a Homemaker and Volunteer. Princeton, N.J.: Educational Testing Service, 1977, 1979. Formative Evaluation Research Associates, Inc. Project WELD: Women's education:Learning and Doing. Ann Arbor, Ml: FERA, 1977. Fry, R., and Kold, D. Experiential learning theory and learning experience in the liberal arts. New Directions in Experiential Learning, 1979, 6, 79-92. Guttentag, M., and Struening, E.L. (Eds.), Handbook of Evaluation Research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1975. Guttentag, M.; Brush, L.R.; Gold, A.R.; Mueller, M.W.; Tobias, S.; and White, W. Evaluating women's studies: A decision-theoretical approach. Signs, 1979,3(4), 884-890. Millsap, M.A.; Bagenstos, N.T.; and Talburtt, M. Women's Studies Evaluation Handbook. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Education, 1979. National Student Volunteer Program. Evaluating Service-Learning Programs.Washington, D.C.: ACTION, 1978. (Pamphlet No. 4300.7) Sackmary, B., and Hendrick, H. Assessment of the experiential learning of women for college credit in the area of women's studies. Paper presented to the National Conference, Council for the Advancement of Experiential Learning, San Francisco, October 1977. (ED 155 208) Williams K.L.; Parks, B.J. and Finey, C.J. Measures of Educational Equity for Women: A Research Monograph. Palo Alto, CA: American Institutes for Research, 1977. Chapter 4: RESOURCES A VARIETY OF COURSE DESCRIPTIONS: WOMEN'S STUDIES FIELD EXPERIENCE NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY Women's Studies C75: Internship in Women's Services In this course, students interested in women's studies can explore the world of women's organizations and women's advocacy groups in the Chicago area through field research and practical work experience. Students will be expected to work a minimum of eight hours per week in their placements and to meet biweekly with the instructor and the other interns for discussions of common readings and their internship experience. A final paper analyzing the organization in which the intern works is also required. Enrollment limited to ten. Prerequisite: at least one course in women's studies, preferably Women's Studies B30-1, 2. UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, SEATTLE G. St. 345 A Community Fieldwork: Social Services Second half of a hyphenated series; G. St. 344-355, interdisciplinary seminar-fieldwork course in the social service area. Students will do counseling in mental health clinics, work with physically handicapped persons, youth centers and other service agencies. The course is divided into 2 parts--3 credits of fieldwork (9 hours per week) and 2 credits of seminar. To receive credit as a course relevant to Women Studies, students must do fieldwork in an area concerning women. See Women Studies advisor for further information. A maximum of 20 credits in G. St. 350 and 340-349 series together may be counted toward a degree in Arts and Sciences. This is a two quarter commitment. Prerequisites: Permission and entry cards required from the GIS office, see Women Studies advisor first; 5 credits; Time: Tues. 1:30. UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH WOMEN'S STUDIES PROGRAM ---- FIELD PLACEMENT ---- 3 CREDITS By Appointment Special permission is required for this opportunity to extend your academic training to a practical work experience. A request for field placement implies that you have gained some expertise in an area you wish to explore in a work situation. Applicants must: be 3rd year students in good standing; have completed two courses in women's studies and four courses relevant to the field placement; and plan to work a minimum of six hours in an appropriate agency. A preliminary proposal should be submitted, with a women's studies application form, in the term prior to registering for the course, and this must be approved by both the Women's Studies faculty sponsor and the agency supervisor. Students will be required to meet regularly with the faculty sponsor during the term and will be expected to produce a 15-page final report relating their field experience to their academic training. Grading is based on placement performance as rated by the agency supervisor and the quality of the final report. RUTGERS UNIVERSITY DOUGLASS COLLEGE WOMEN'S STUDIES 988:490 SEMINAR: WOMEN AND CONTEMPORARY PROBLEMS (4) Prerequisite 988: 201 Open to seniors enrolled for Women's Studies Certificate; others by permission of Women's Studies Director Seminar 3 hours: internship or advanced research This seminar involves either an internship in a community organization or agency or an advanced research project. Students meet weekly to discuss assigned reading, research, and internship experience. All Douglass College Women's Studies Certificate students are required to take this upper level seminar subtitled "Women Organizing for Change." It involves a field work type experience chosen by the student. The list of papers done in last spring's seminar is below. An Inquiry with the Effectiveness, Safety and Potential Hazards of Over-the-Counter Pharmaceuticals (Johnson & Johnson, Squibb) Women's Resource and Survival Center: Analysis of an Organization (Monmouth County) Organizing for Change: The Woman Journalist Volunteer at Middlesex County Battered Women's Shelter Analysis of the New Brunswick Free Medical Clinic The Hammond House Organizing Experiences at the Center for the American Woman in Politics and Women in Politics Workshop (Eagleton Inst.) Organizing a Film Program for International Women's Day 56 Place - Pre-selection Training Critique of New Brunswick Planned Parenthood Sexuality and Birth Control An Evaluation of the Women's Studies Department at Douglass College The Women Helping Women Shelter for Battered Women Battered Women's Shelter - Keyport, New York Douglass Feminist Collective - Action Against Rape Peer Counseling - Gatehouse Drop-In Center Self-Awareness Discussion with South Brunswick High School Girls Women Organizing for Fun - 1st Annual WOFF Picnic C.S. MOTT COMMUNITY COLLEGE FLINT, MICHIGAN WOMEN'S STUDIES/SOCIAL SCIENCE DIVISION Women's Studies 119, Field Work 3 Credits Prerequisites: Permission of the Instructor This course provides the individual student with practical experience directly related to his/her personal educational and occupational goals. In consultation with the instructor, the student selects an agency, business setting or organization in which to complete a project and obtain skills relating to women's studies. Procedures and Requirements: Each student meets individually with the instructor to plan his/her field work placement. An agency is selected, and the student, instructor and agency representative meet to arrange the student's program. - Student and agency arrange for the student to work in the agency for at least 10 hours per week. - Student, agency and instructor select and plan a project that the student can accomplish during the placement. All students in the course meet for a one hour per week seminar to exchange experiences and learnings in their various settings. In cooperation with instructor and agency, outside visits or readings are assigned to help the student complete the project. Objectives: - To assist the student in acquiring skills in working with women in a business or agency setting. - To provide information in depth in the student's particular area of interest. - To acquire skills in independent study doing bibliographies of resources, learning community resources for women, and/or skills in being a helping agent for women. - To learn about other agencies and interests by attending seminar meetings. Since this course is totally individualized, a variety of different teaching materials will be employed. For some students, materials available in the instructional media center will be used. In some cases, there are community resources available--e.g., speakers, conferences, etc.--that will be included in the student's program. There are also numerous books and periodicals in the field of women's studies available in the library. Evaluation: - Students will be required to keep a journal of their field work experience. This journal will include information about what they are doing, a log of the time spent in the agency, and an annotated bibliography of readings and media or speakers. - Each student will write a final report on his/her project. - Each student will write an initial statement of goals for the placement, and a final self evaluation of the experience. Relevance to the Student and College: Required for the completion of the Certificate of Achievement in Women's Studies, "Field Work" provides the student with an opportunity to explore knowledge in the area to a practical situation. It also gives each student information about services available for women in this community, and experience dealing with problems that are unique to women. This course is designed to be a complement to the more theoretical offerings in the other women's studies courses. "Field Work" will be reviewed after it has been offered two semesters. It has been tried on a seminar basis during Fall 1979, and has already been subjected to an initial review. Effect on Existing College Arrangements: - Faculty are currently available to teach this course. - A variety of teaching materials are available in the IMS and the College library. In addition, students have access to the materials and library at the Everywoman's Center in Flint. - There is no overlap with other courses. - There would be no change in other courses. - Implementation data: Fall 1980. THE PROGRAM ON WOMEN NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY EVANSTON, ILLINOIS 60201 INTERNSHIP IN WOMEN'S SERVICES The Program on Women at Northwestern University offers its Internship in Women's Services as part of a diverse university offering in Women's Studies. The internship program, administered by the Director of the Program on Women, fills an important place in the curriculum by responding to the question of what an undergraduate can "do with" a concentration in Women's Studies. The internship is designed to introduce undergraduates to the variety and rewards of professional work with women's organizations and women's advocacy groups. Students enrolled in the internship program must be in their sophomore year or beyond, must have classroom experience in Women's Studies, and must display active interest in professional careers in fields related to women's issues. As an indication of their interest in this work, they are responsible for doing initial research on available organizations which fit their interests and making those choices known to the instructor for the course. The course currently carries one academic credit per ten-week quarter. Students are therefore expected to work, at a minimum, eight hours per week in their chosen placement. They will also meet bi-weekly with the instructor to compare their experiences and develop some working hypotheses about the special problems and challenges faced by women's organizations. At the end of the term, each student will prepare a relatively brief paper analyzing the organization in which s/he interned. The paper will include descriptions of the sponsoring organization's goals, its day-to-day activities, funding problems, special interactional styles, and its directions for future development. That paper will account for one-third of the student's grade in the course. One-third will depend on participation in the bi-weekly discussions, and the last third will depend on a report from the student's supervisor to the course instructor. That report will include such matters as industry, initiative, cooperativeness, and general performance in assigned tasks. The internship program is designed to introduce students as fully as possible to the total workings of the organizations in which they work. Supervisors are therefore requested to urge the student to gain as much varied experience as possible, perhaps working in several areas of the organization's activities. It is also important that the student be encouraged to take on as much responsibility as is consistent with the smooth functioning of the organization. The Program on Women is grateful to the organizations who agree to receive its interns. The staff of the Program will be glad to hear about problems as they develop, and to take whatever corrective actions may be necessary. It is our best hope that the internship be a valuable and rewarding experience for both student and sponsoring organization. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA CRUZ KRESGE COLLEGE WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNSHIP PROGRAM Criteria for selection of organizations and interns for the Internship Program sponsored by Women's Studies. I. Criteria for Organizations: Groups accepted by the Internship Task Force and approved by the Collective for placement of student interns ... 1. shall provide the opportunity for the student to expand her or his knowledge, understanding and awareness of woman from a variety of socio-economic, racial and/or cultural backgrounds. 2. shall be concerned with problems of social inequities in both its goals and activities, particularly those affecting women in this society. 3. shall have clear and viable mechanisms whereby the individuals served by the program are able to have significant input into the program, and shall be attempting to understand and articulate the needs of these individuals. 4. shall be sympathetic to the goals and objectives of the Women's Studies Collective and its Internship Program. 5. shall be non-profit and direct-service oriented, have a need for volunteers and a mechanism for integrating them into the program on a useful and meaningful level of involvement, given the five limits within which the intern will remain in the program. II. Minimum Eligibility for Student Interns: 1. Participation in the Women's Studies Collective at least one quarter prior to internship, or during the quarter of internship. 2. Commitment to work in the Internship Task Force (one meeting per week) during the field study and to consider continuing in the Task Force for at least one quarter after the internship. III. Internship Task Force - Organization and Function: 1. Meets on a weekly basis. 2. Maintains contact with participating groups: a. has one contact person--a member of the Task Force--responsible to each organization (not the person who is doing field study in that group) b. there will be a person in each group or organization who will maintain contact with the intern and with the Task Force and who will act as the contact person for that group c. the contact person from the Task Force will maintain communication with the contact person from the group or organization 3. The faculty sponsor, in consultation with the Internship Task Force, will write a final evaluation of the intern based on evaluation from the organization and intern's self-evaluation. 4. Each quarter, the Task Force will select the groups and the number of students to participate in the program for the next quarter, subject to the approval of the Collective. 5. The Internship Task Force will provide applications to all interested students, and will interview them. The applicant will also be interviewed by the prospective group. The final selection will be made by the Internship Task Force on the basis of the interview and application. 6. There will be an orientation for all prospective applicants the quarter preceding the internship. At this time applications will be distributed and will be due the second day of instruction. Interviews will be conducted the first week of school and interns will start their work the second week. IV. Requirements for Interns: 1. Be active members of the Internship Task Force and attend its meeting once a week. The meetings will be a place to share experiences, discuss related readings, and organize the program. 2. Work in the organization at least ten hours a week. 3. Read general materials on field study work suggested by the Task Force as well as books or articles specific to the interest or direction of the organization. 4. Keep a journal, write an evaluation of, or give a presentation on the field experience which will be available to the Women's Studies Collective on a permanent basis. 5. Write a short self-evaluation. 6. Organize an experience-sharing meeting with incoming interns. LORETTO HEIGHTS COLLEGE WS 463: Practicum in Women Studies, 2-6 credits, required of all minors The student, in conjunction with the Director of the Women Studies Minor, selects an internship which is congruent with her/his Women Studies Minor and/or with personal and career goals. The student receives one hour of credit for each 32 hours of practicum experience with a satisfactory rating from the Practicum Supervisor and the Director of the Women Studies Minor (faculty advisor). In addition to the internship and the Practicum Supervisor's evaluation, credit requires some written work--a journal or paper, which must be evaluated by the academic advisor. Work must relate clearly to Women Studies and must be substantive. A file of internship possibilities is available in the Research Center on Women, and the Director of the Research Center/Women Studies Minor is responsible for locating appropriate placements. Prerequisite: Permission of Instructor. WS 451: Independent Study in Women's Studies, 2-6 credits. Directed research and reading. Placement Procedures I. Establishing the Placement A. Student contacts Instructor and discusses goals for placement, including skill development, career exploration, experience of feminist agency, commitment to particular issues, previous experience, etc. Student indicates interest in general area and/or particular placement. B. Instructor contacts agency or feminist contact and inquires about the need for an intern, kinds of work available, etc. If a new placement site, explains goals of practicum, responsibilities of interns and supervisors, etc. Describes student's experience, learning goals, etc. C. Student initiates meeting with potential supervisor(s). When agency and student agree to placement, they contract regarding hours and times committed, student learning goals, type of work to be performed, feedback and supervisory sessions, criteria on which student is to be evaluated, relation to rest of agency, etc. Contract is open to renegotiation. D. Student contracts with Instructor for independent study to accompany internship. Terms of contract generally include: 1. Number of hours to work. Credit is assigned on the basis of 2.5 hours of work for a sixteen week semester per credit, or roughly 40 hours of work per credit. 2. Student's learning goals for practicum, including specific work skills, interpersonal skills, knowledge of feminist agency or issue, analytic questions to explore, etc. 3. Written work, usually including a journal or log, responses to reading, brief written assignments designed to analyze some portion of the work experience, and a final evaluation of the experience and the learning it encouraged. II. The Placement Student performs ongoing work and receives supervision at the work place. Academic instructor telephones placement supervisor at least twice during the term to see how the intern is doing, and is available to help negotiate issues between intern and supervisor if necessary; generally, intern is encouraged to negotiate for herself. III. Processing the Placement A. Student and Instructor meet for an hour roughly every 2-4 weeks, depending on student need and on Instructor's sense of how much direction is necessary for the student. Discuss the work, encourage student to develop analyses of work situation and/or feminist issues, and to develop supports for whatever emotional turmoil may result from stressful placements, like rape counseling. B. Encourage new insights through: responses to journal. conversation, assigned reading, work observation exercises. C. Evaluation. Grade assigned by academic instructor on basis of her evaluation of academic component, placement supervisor's evaluation of intern (in both cases taking into account intern's goals and previously-contracted-for evaluation criteria), and taking into account student's self-evaluation as reflected in conversation and in final paper. CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY HAYWARD Sociology DGS 3920 Fieldwork in Women's Agencies Purpose of the Course The purpose of the course is to give students field work experience in an agency or organization providing services to women, to provide a classroom forum for fieldwork students to discuss their fieldwork experiences, and to give an overview and analysis of some services for women available in the Bay Area. Completing the course requirements explained below will result in a grade of CREDIT. The four units of credit will carry the course designation, Sociology or Women's Studies. The ramifications of the course designation for receiving units in your major, minor, or upper division general education are too complicated to explain here. Consult with me and/or your major advisor in making your choice. Course Requirements 1. Attend these Thursday class meetings from 12:00-1:50: Sept. 27, Oct. 4, 11, 18, 25, Nov. 1, 8, 15, 29, Dec. 6, and Tuesday, Dec. 11. 2. Be prepared to actively discuss your fieldwork experiences and your agency in class meetings. 3. Do 4 hours of fieldwork per week or a total of at least 44 hours of fieldwork completed between Sept. 27 and Dec. 11 in an agency that you, the agency, and the professor have agreed upon. 4. Prepare a journal wherein you record the following information about each fieldwork session: a. Date b. Time in, time out c. Name of supervisor d. Describe the work you did. e. Tell what you learned from the work. f. Tell what you learned about the agency. 5. Turn in your journal for grading (typed or neatly hand written) on Oct. 25 and Dec. 11. (You can have the journal back after Dec. 13. It's something you should keep for future reference and to show to prospective employers.) Fieldwork Instructions 1. Select an agency assignment as quickly as possible. 2. Notify me of your selection before contacting the agency. 3. Contact the agency and clarify your commitment and your duties with them. 4. Complete the Fieldwork Contract in triplicate. Keep a copy for yourself. Give one to me. Give one to the agency. 5. Fulfill your Fieldwork Contract with the agency and the course requirements previously stated. Fieldwork Guidelines If your fieldwork placement is not working out for you or the agency, you must see me promptly about rewriting your contract or substituting another fieldwork placement. Nothing will be lost if you ask for a different fieldwork assignment as you will be credited for fieldwork already done. Follow these common-sense guidelines for agency work: Even if asked, don't provide a service that you don't feel that you are adequately trained or qualified to give; don't provide a service that makes you morally or ethically uncomfortable; don't do anything illegal; avoid situations which might bring personal harm to you or others. Additional Course Credit Some agencies require a commitment of 6 months or longer. This is because they invest a great deal of time in training you and they want it to pay off for the agency. If you can use the additional units for agency work, then think about making a 6-month commitment. If this course is not offered Winter Quarter, I promise to work with you on an individual study basis for Sociology or Women's Studies units. It is also possible to receive Psychology units for Winter Quarter field-work through Psychology 4430, Psychology in the Community. CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY HAYWARD FIELDWORK CONTRACT, SOCIOLOGY 3920 In partial fulfillment of the course requirements of Sociology 3920, Fieldwork in Women's Agencies, I promise to volunteer approximately _____ hours a week for ____ weeks at (name) _____ _______________ (address) _____________________________________, (phone of agency) _______________________ doing (specify volunteer activities) ____________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ under agency supervision of (name of supervisor(s)) ____________ ________________________________________________________________ This contract is voidable if the student volunteer and/or the agency express a desire to void it. ______________________________ Signature of Student Volunteer ______________________________ Signature of Agency Supervisor _____________________ Signature of Professor Please sign three copies Distribution: Student Agency Professor WOMEN'S STUDIES THE UNIVERSITY OF CONNECTICUT Storrs, Connecticut 06268 Box U-181 Tel 436-3970 WOMEN'S SEMESTER One of the most important aspects of Women's Studies is its insistence that the separation of university ("learning") and the community ("experience") is an arbitrary one and that the most productive educational processes combine didactic and experiential learning. Women's Semester enables students to expand their university education with actual work experience and, at the same time, to enrich their work experience by bringing to it theoretical knowledge gained in the classroom. Each term, a limited number of students may earn 12 credits in field placements with organizations that deal with women's issues or with a woman in a non-traditional field or in a position whose duties include administration, policy making, and/or research. Requirements: 18 hours a week of unpaid field work; 9 hours per week of library work or research; and a weekly 3-hour seminar in which students, through lectures, discussion, and readings, explore the academic side their chosen fields. Prerequisite: one women's studies course, preferably Introduction to Women's Studies (INTDL 102). Enrollment limit: 10 students per semester. Minimum semester standing: 5. Field work includes 18 hours per week for 13 weeks in a field placement and 9 hours per week research and library work. A report of research and work will be accepted in the form of a placement background report, a log and journal which summarize and analyze day-to-day activities in the field, a field work project, and a final report. Field supervisors are asked to take an active role in structuring the project in order to insure that the work and the reports will be useful to the placement as well as fulfilling university requirements. Field placements might include, for example, working at a family planning clinic, a rape crisis center, an insurance company, or the Permanent Commission on the Status of Women; as an aide to a women legislator or an intern to the state personnel director; or in association with a self-employed woman. Students are expected and encouraged to engage in independent work activity and to serve in an active, significant, and responsible pre-professional role in the placement. Field and research projects should fill the needs and objectives of both the field placement and the course; both students and placements or supervisors, then, should benefit from this program. Through lectures, discussion, assigned readings, and research projects, the seminar enables students to explore issues of special concern to women, with an emphasis on theoretical and concrete responses to these issues. Some areas of concern include violence against women, women and the law, racism, feminist therapy, unionization, and women and the arts. For the seminar, students must write midterm and final exams and a research paper. In addition, part of the weekly meeting time is devoted to providing support for students as they consider these issues and as they do their field work. Students must have permission from their major academic advisor in order to register for Women's Semester. Field supervision is conducted by a committee that includes the Women's Semester field placement coordinator, the Director of the Women's Studies Program the major advisor, and the Placement Supervisor. Students are expected to maintain contact with each member of the committee. Although the final evaluation of a student's work is determined by the Women's Semester field placement coordinator, the opinions, suggestions and comments of the committee members weigh heavily in the evaluation process. Three forms have been designed for use in evaluating students during the semester. Form A is a work plan for the semester. It is suggested that the student and the supervisory committee work together in the formulation of this plan. Placement supervisors and the students also complete an assessment (Forms B1 and B2) of students' progress toward their stated goals at midsemester. During the final week of the semester, supervisors will be asked to complete Form C in order to evaluate students' work and their success in assessing and dealing with women's issues in the field. The student also writes a final report. These evaluations from students, supervisors, and the seminar instructor are submitted to the field placement coordinator for the final grade. Women's Semester provides an opportunity for students not only to gain significant job experience before graduation, but also to engage in action which might help solve some of the many problems women face. For further information, contact Women's Studies Program, Box U-181, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06268, (203) 486-2186. University of Connecticut Women's Semester Intd. 260 Schedule for Field Placement Responsibilities (Co-seminar assignments are listed in a separate syllabus) Sept. 3 Introduction 10 Form A due 17 Background paper 24 Project proposal Oct. 1 Log, journal review 15 Lunch project 22 Forms B1 and B2 due Nov. 12 Resume due, log, journal review 26, 27, 28 Vacation Dec. 3 Field project due 10 Final evaluation, Form C, log, and journal You are responsible for working 18 hours per week for 13 weeks on a schedule arranged with your field supervisor. For some placements, you may work longer some weeks and less others. Field work must total 234 hours. You must make specific arrangements in advance for how to notify your field supervisor if you will be late or unable to work on a scheduled day. You are not required to work on those days which are official holidays at your placement (e.g., state holidays,snows). Description of Written Work Forms A, B1, B2, and C: are self-explanatory. You will, of course, consult with your supervisor when completing Form A, and an evaluative conference at midterm probably will be helpful for both of you. Background paper: 2-3 pages in which you describe the following about the organization you work for (adapt according to your individual placement): history, structure, funding source(s). What people will you be working with and how do they fit into the structure (be specific--names, titles, responsibilities, etc.)? What is your position within the organization? Provide as much detail as possible. Field Work Project: A specific project at your placement on which you focus your energies. This project should provide some substantial contribution to the organization you work for, but need not be your sole occupation. Some examples: a local referral file for a battered women's shelter. a special research project for an agency, a single mother's support group through an agency that works with children, a task force on a special women's issue for an organization (e.g., women's health). The proposal should describe the project, its purpose, its value to the organization, the method(s) you will use to complete it, and a tentative time table for completion. When you submit the project at the end of term, write a description of how you went about doing it and what you think are its values and shortcomings. If the project itself is not written (e.g., organizing a support group), write a full description of the project. Field Work Log: A straightforward, daily account of the work you do, including a tally of hours at the end of each week. Indicate what tasks you perform each day and include, for example, summaries of conferences with your supervisor or other workers, or minutes of meetings you attend. Anyone who looks at this log should have a clear idea of what you do at your placement. This log is submitted to the academic supervisor and a copy may be turned over to the placement for their records. Your field supervisor will take this log into account for your final evaluation. Journal: Should provide an ongoing account of your field work and your `analysis' and `evaluation' of it. This is the place where you record what you are thinking about your field work, e.g., your analysis of relationships, your own position within the organization (perhaps how that is changing), day to day problems and triumphs, your discontent and/or pleasure with the placement. Don't simply say, "I learned a lot today;" describe specifically what you learned and how you learned it. Don't say, "The meeting went well;" summarize the meeting and analyze why it was successful (or a waste of time). Don't simply say, "I really admire X person;" try to sort out what it is about that person you respect. `Use' this journal to try to sort through any problems you are having, to record your observations of the organization. Be as detailed as possible. This record will be important to you at the end of term when you write your final evaluation because you will be able to see in it your own progress during the semester, supported with specific examples. The academic supervisor will read both the log and the journal twice during the term and again at the end of the semester. The log and journal together should provide a substantial account of your semester's work. It is not enough simply to put in your eighteen hours a week. You must be accountable for that time and provide some analysis and evaluation of that experience. Resume: A formal resume in which you make full use of your field work. We will discuss the construction of resumes during the term. Final evaluation: A report in which you first describe your work during the semester (tasks, responsibilities) and, second, summarize what you have learned: did you reach the goals you set initially? How? Did you alter those original goals? What kinds of insights into your academic program has this experience provided, or how does Women's Semester "fit" into the rest of your college education? What did you learn about women's issues or the women's movement? The third section should be an evaluation of the placement itself. Would you recommend it to other students? Did you find your field supervisor helpful? What was of most value to you? What was of least value or the greatest source of distress? How could your field experience have been improved? University of Connecticut Women's Seminar Fall 1980 Text: Adrienne Rich, "On Lies, Secrets, and Silence" Other Readings to be distributed Course Description: Women's Seminar is a course designed to provide some of the factual information and emotional support students need as they consider sexism in the society and begin to make political, professional and personal decisions regarding feminist issues. Each semester, I find developing the syllabus for the course becomes harder. What I try to do is develop a blend of factual learning and personal consciousness-raising. To achieve the former, a preplanned outline of topics seems required. To achieve the latter, there must be room for people to examine where they are and where their own questioning leads them. My solution, this time, is to suggest an outline of topics and to remain flexible and ready to continue or omit any topic according to my own and students' sense of what we want. Readings are suggested for the first several weeks and others will be added as the semester goes on. Course Requirements: Attendance: If unable to be at any session, please leave the instructors a message saying so....What you learn and how you change is up to you, but we will grade you Disinterested if you cut classes. Paper: Research a particular aspect of feminist activity. Your paper should define a problem, outline historical attempts to solve the problem, and present a proposal for present and/or future activity. Please include something about the reason for your interest in the problem and your plan for a personal contribution to its solution, as well as evidence of your familiarity with the relevant literature. Your topic may or may not be related to the activity you focus on in your field placement project. If it is that activity, your project and research paper may be combined. Otherwise, this will be a separate research paper. The University of Connecticut Women's Semester Intd. 260 Field Placement: Form A (Please print or type) I. Student's Name ________________________________________________ Local Address _________________________________________________ City, State ________________Zip__________Phone_________________ Other (or permanent) Address __________________________________ City, State ________________Zip__________Phone_________________ Major ____________________Major Advisor________________________ Semester Standing ________________As of________________________ II. Placement with _______________________________________________ Address ______________________________________________________ City, State________________Zip___________Phone________________ On-site Supervisor____________________________________________ Title or Position_____________________________________________ III. Description of Proposed Work (use additional sheets, if necessary): IV. Manner and Criteria for Evaluation (e.g., weekly meetings, written reports, etc. Please be specific): V. Women's Semester qualifies for_______hours major credit, hours related credit,_______other (explain). VI. 1. Student's personal goals for the semester: 2. How will Women's Semester contribute to your academic or career goals? 3. In what way(s) will this placement help you to analyze and deal with women's issues? VII. Field Work Tasks (in order of priority): VIII. Brief description of Placement Project: IX. Work Schedule/Time Allocation. Please indicate work location and times for regular meetings, tasks: Time Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday ___________________________________________________ | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | X. Check off the following skill areas in which you are gaining experience through your field work. Describe the specific skills and tasks to which they relate: ( ) Counseling Skills (interviewing, therapy, etc.) _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ( ) Research Skills (legal research, writing skills, etc.) _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ( ) Community Organization Skills (advocacy, calling and/or chairing meetings, etc.) _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ( ) Technical Medical Skills (lab work, medical tests, etc.) _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ( ) Grant Writing _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ( ) Lobbying _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ( ) Public Relations _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ( ) Administrative Skills (Leadership positions, planning, involvement in setting policy) _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ( ) Communication Skills _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ( ) Business Skills (budgeting, bookkeeping, management) _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ( ) Other _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ XI. Approval Signatures ______________________________________ Date __________________ Student ______________________________________ Date __________________ Field Work Supervisor Position ______________________________________ Date __________________ Major Advisor Department ______________________________________ Date __________________ Women's Semester Coordinator Women's Semester Intd. 260 Midterm Evaluation -- Form Bl To be completed by on-site supervisor Student Name_______________________________________________________ Supervisor_________________________________________________________ Placement__________________________________________________________ Please assess the student's progress on regular tasks and on the major project. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ In your opinion, what are the strengths and weaknesses of this student's work? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Do you think the student has set realistic goals? Will these goals be reached by the end of the semester? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ If not, what suggestions would you make towards the facilitation or improvement of the student's work? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Women's Semester Intd. 260 Midterm Evaluation -- Form B2 To be completed by student Student's Name_____________________________________________________ Placement__________________________________________________________ In what ways are you successfully reaching your personal goals for the semester? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ What do you need to do during the remainder of the semester in order to reach the goals? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Describe the progress that you have made thus far on field work tasks and your project: __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Are you satisfied with your progress, and why or why not? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS HARBOR CAMPUS WOMEN'S STUDIES WOST 490 INTERNSHIP IN WOMEN'S STUDIES 6 CREDITS For 8-15 hours of field work each week students will earn 3 credits (of the six) on a Pass/Fail basis. Placements may be in women's organizations, alternative institutions, political campaigns, and agencies serving women or the family. Students may seek a placement from the listings in the Women's Studies Resource Center or may propose a field placement of their choice for supervised field work to the faculty member acting as academic supervisor for the internship. An internship seminar will allow students to apply their academic knowledge in women's studies to their practical experiences as working women. Topics will include theoretical issues relevant to the field placements, evaluation of basic skills learned in field work, and career development exercises. Guest speakers will describe their own career goals and progress. Considerable discussion time will be devoted to an analysis of students' on-site work. The seminar will be graded separately from the field work, and students must enroll in both. Students will keep a journal, make a presentation in the seminar, and write a paper on some aspect of their field work. Open to a maximum of 12 students each semester, by permission of instructor. Students must secure their placement before the end of the semester prior to the one they enroll in the course. Prerequisite: two women's studies courses or equivalent. Junior or senior standing. Course Outline I. Introduction Background Purposes of seminar: integrate theoretical/practical, support group for cooperative learning II. Theoretical Issues - 4 weeks A. History of women in service professions and social change fields B. Service work and sex roles C. The structure of organizations and service institutions: large and small; hierarchical and egalitarian D. Autonomous women's organizations (e.g., 9 to 5, N.O.W.) vs. women's programming in institutions III. Basic Skills - 4 weeks A. Resource development: referral and proposal writing skills B. Assertiveness training; coping with forms of discrimination C. Planning and administrative skills D. Groups skills vs. one-on-one skills IV. Career Development - 4 weeks Topics will be selected from this list: A. Defining values, interests, goals B. Networking; surveying the job field; job hunting C. Relating to supervisors, co-workers, supervisees D. Preparing a resume; job interviewing techniques V. Course evaluations Goals for Students 1. Assist students in gaining both greater conceptual awareness and practical understanding of their own interest in and potential for a career in the service professions or social change organizations. 2. Students will be asked to define, by the end of the course, how their own ideas about service or social change work have been clarified or changed. 3. Students will gain essential skills critical to effective performance in service or social change work. 4. Students are introduced to individual and group assessment skills so they will be prepared for the career decisions facing them after graduation. UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS HARBOR CAMPUS WOST 490 INTERNSHIP IN WOMEN'S STUDIES BOOKS Richard Bolles, "What Color is Your Parachute: A Practical Manual for Job Hunters and Career Changers," 1975 . Fidell and DeLamater, eds., "Women in the Professions: What's All the Fuss About?" 1971 . Florence Howe, "Women and the Power to Change," 1975. Ruth B. Knudsin, "Women and Success: The Anatomy of Achievement," 1974. Renee Levine, "How to Get a Job in Boston, Vocations for Social Change." Herta Loeser, "Women, Work and Volunteering," 1974. S. Ruddick and P. Daniels, eds., "Working It Out," 1977. Catherine Samuels, "The Forgotten Five Million: Women in Public Employment, (A Guide to Eliminating Sex Discrimination)," Women's Action Alliance, 1975. "No Bosses Here: A Manual on Working Collectively, Vocations for Social Change." ARTICLES "Leadership," Organizational Psychology, An Experimental Approach, edited by Kolb, Rubin, Mclntyre. "Networks," Jane Wilson, Savvy, 1979. "Race, Sex, and the U.S. Working Class," Albert Szymanski, Social Problems 21, 1974. "Sex Roles: Persistence and Change," Journal of Social Issues 32 (3), 1976. "The Role of Structural Factors in Limiting Women's Institutional Participation." "Fear of Success: Attribution of Causes to the Victim." "Big Time Careers for the Little Woman: A Dual Role Dilemma." "Sexual Harassment", Radical America 12 (4). Chapter on "Social Housekeeping" in Mary Ryan, Womanhood in America. "Trust, Loyalty and the Place of Women in the Informal Organization of Work," Judith Lorber, Women: A Feminist Perspective, ed. by Jo Freeman. "The Tyranny of Structurelessness," Joreen. "Why Bosses Turn Bitchy," Rosabeth M. Kantor, Psychology Today, May 1976. "Work Aspirations of Women: False Leads and New Starts," Judith Laws, and "Occupational Segregation and the Law," Margaret Gates, Signs 1 (No. 2, Part 2) 1976. "Women and Interpersonal Power," Paula Johnson, Women and Sex Roles, A Social Psychological Perspective, 1978. "Can We Be Feminists and Professionals?" Mary Howell, unpublished paper. "Who Shall Work?" Bertrand B. Pogrebin, Ms. Magazine, December 1975. UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS HARBOR CAMPUS REQUEST FOR STUDENT INTERN Name of Organization ______________________________________________ Address______________________________City_____________Zip__________ Phone______________________________________________________________ Purpose and Structure of your Organization: Provide a concise description...a clear statement that describes the purpose, function, and day to day activities of your organization or agency. If it would be relevant to a potential intern, give a brief account of the history of your organization. Job Description: Job Title:_________________ Describe in detail the duties and responsibilities of the proposed job, indicating what a student might expect to learn from the work. If any special background or level of experience would be desirable, please say so. Job description will be read by interested students. If you have already had experience with interns, please describe it briefly. Supervision: Indicate frequency and style of student supervision. In general, how would a student be kept informed about her/his performance? If necessary, are you willing to participate with faculty advisors in evaluating the student's work? Student requested for: Fall 19____ Spring_____ Summer 19____ Directions: Is your organization accessible to public transportation? Yes_____ No____ Closest MBTA stop and other special directions: Return to: Women's Studies Programs/Internships University of Massachusetts Harbor Campus Boston, Massachusetts 02125 (617) 287-1900, ext. 2378 UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH WOMEN'S STUDIES PROGRAM 1012 CATHEDRAL OF LEARNING (412) 624-6485 Field Placement Guidelines Goals 1. To offer students an opportunity to extend their academic training to a practical work experience. This implies that the student has gained some expertise in an area s/he wishes to explore in a work situation. 2. To show in concrete terms the work options available to students through an apprenticeship semester which can provide job-related training. 3. To illustrate the Women's Studies Program commitment to translating feminist ideas into action. This implies that the field placement experience is not only goal-oriented, but also ideological; therefore, the student should have a specific academic background, and a broad understanding of the issues confronting women today, obtained by concentrating on a wide range of women's studies courses. 4. To broaden the scope of the Women's Studies Program and to enrich the program by contact and exchange with community groups/agencies. Prerequisites 1. The student must be a junior (3rd year) in good academic standing. 2. The field placement must compliment the student's academic training in women's studies and other university courses. Field placement assignments will be made on the basis of the student's academic background and area of interest. 3. The student must have completed at least 2 courses (6 credits) in women's studies and 4 courses (12 credits) relevant to the field placement, or a total of 12 credits in relevant academic studies. Women's studies courses may serve as all or part of the 12 credit total requirement. Requirements 1. A one or two page typewritten proposal, outlining the student's goals and relating her/his previous academic training to the field placement, must be submitted to Women's Studies Program with the Field Placement Application Form. 2. The proposal must be approved by both the faculty sponsor and the agency supervisor in the semester prior to beginning the field placement. 3. Students should plan to work a minimum of 6 hours per week in the agency. Individual schedules will be arranged between the student and the agency and it is the student's responsibility to notify Women's Studies Program of the schedule arrangements. 4. Students must meet with their Women's Studies Program faculty sponsor at regular intervals to discuss their progress at the agency. It is recommended that the student keep a written log of the placement experience to be examined by and discussed with the Women's Studies Program faculty sponsor. 5. A 15-page typewritten report, relating the field experience to the student's academic training is required for the completion of the field experience. This report should also include the student's specific duties at the agency and a critique of the strengths and weaknesses of the field placement in terms of her/his academic and personal development. 6. Grading will be based on placement performance as rated by the agency supervisor and the quality of the final report. 7. Grading option may be credit/no entry or a letter grade, as designated by the student when applying for admission to field placement. University of Pittsburgh Women's Studies Program WOMEN'S STUDIES FIELD PLACEMENT NAME_____________________________________________DATE___________ ADDRESS_________________________________________________________ _______________________TERM & YEAR OF PLACEMENT_________________ TELEPHONE_______________________GRADING OPTION__________________ STUDENT NUMBER__________________________________________________ FACULTY SPONSOR_________________________________________________ DATE____________________________________________________________ FIELD PLACEMENT_________________________________________________ PLACEMENT SUPERVISOR____________________________________________ PREREQUISITE COURSES: DATE COMPLETED: _____________________________ ___________________________ _____________________________ ___________________________ _____________________________ ___________________________ _____________________________ ___________________________ _____________________________ ___________________________ _____________________________ ___________________________ COMPLETION ASSIGNMENTS: COMMENTS: GRADE ASSIGNED_______________ ____________________________ FACULTY SIGNATURE____________ ____________________________ DATE_________________________ This form should be completed the semester before the field placement begins. A one/two page statement outlining the relation of the placement to the student's previous training and the student's goals for the placement should be attached to this form. UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH WOMEN'S STUDIES PROGRAM 1012 CATHEDRAL OF LEARNING (412) 624-6485 WOMEN'S STUDIES FIELD PLACEMENT AGENCY AGREEMENT FORM Name of Agency: Phone: Address: Agency Supervisor(s) and Title: Student Intern: Phone: Term/Year of Placement: WSP Faculty Supervisor: Phone: Address: In recognition of a commitment to provide practical work experience for the above named student, we agree to work collaboratively with the Women's Studies Program at the University of Pittsburgh according to the following guidelines: 1. Agency supervisor and/or other qualified personnel agree to introduce and orient student to agency objectives, structure, policies and procedures, and to interpret them as needed. 2. Specifies meetings and/or conferences that student will be permitted to participate in. 3. Agrees to provide adequate space and equipment to enable the student to perform her/his tasks. 4. Will provide appropriate supervision and/or instruction from qualified field instructors, who have the time and interest to assume the required responsibility for the student's educational experience. 5. Clearly define the student's duties, specifying her work will be with women. 6. Student/agency agreement on number of working hours per week. (Minimum of 6 hours for 3 credit field placement.) 7. Have regular supervisor/student conferences focusing on the development of the student. 8. Agrees to accept ongoing responsibility for evaluation of student progress and final evaluation report to Women's Studies Program. 9. Agrees to consult with Women's Studies Program faculty regarding student's progress, problems, etc., before taking any final action. _________________________________________ Agency Supervisor Date Agreement Form for Field Placement University of Pittsburgh Women's Studies Program The Women's Studies Program of the University of Pittsburgh agrees: 1. To assign a faculty representative to facilitate communication regarding student's educational progress. Faculty representative agrees to be available for consultation with agency supervisor when needed. 2. To provide services of administrative assistant to facilitate effective communication lines between Women's Studies Program/Agency on all matters other than educational progress. 3. To provide agency with student profile if required, listing student's educational background, field of interest, and qualifications for working in the particular agency. 4. To provide academic calendar specifying beginning and ending dates of placement and dates student will be excused from field instruction. 5. That student will comply with agency holiday schedule on field placement days, university schedule on school days. 6. That student placements and terminations shall not be considered final until the educational plan has been fully reviewed by Women's Studies Program, the agency, and the student. Modifications/changes, such as early terminations, shall be submitted in writing. 7. To keep agency informed through faculty representative or administrative assistant of any changes in university policy or curriculum which affect agency-program relationship or field instruction. 8. That faculty sponsor will offer guidance to agency supervisor (if needed) as to requirements/content of final evaluation report of student's progress. 9. That this agreement shall continue until review or termination is requested in writing by Women's Studies Program, agency, or student. _______________________________ Faculty Supervisor Date Portland State University Course Description for Women's Studies 409, PRACTICUM Practicum is intended primarily for Women's Studies Certificate students. Students select a fieldwork placement with an organization or group that serves women or is involved with women's issues. Three credits granted for eight hours of placement plus one hour of class meeting weekly. Variable credit, three to six credits per term. Total Practicum credit maximum: nine credits. Some Remarks on Practicum's Role in the Women's Studies Certificate Program Among the requirements for a Women's Studies Certificate (essentially a second major) at Portland State University is six credits of Practicum. Students should plan to take three credits of Practicum in each of two of their last three terms. The Feminist Theory sequence should precede Practicum, so that students are prepared to reflect on their classroom learning during their fieldwork period, testing for themselves the ways in which theory and practice do and do not meet. PRACTICUM PLACEMENT POSSIBILITIES Fall Term 1980 Bradley-Angle House (Sharon Parker): Battered women's shelter crisis and advocacy work Transition House (Pat Butler): Longer term housing for battered women--advocacy or child care work League of Women Voters (Darlene Lemley): Study and lobby for legislation, interview candidates for office, write newsletter copy National Abortion Rights Action League (Phyllis Oster): Community organizing, education, and lobby for pro-choice legislation Sexual Assault Prevention Program, Division of Crime Prevention, Portland Police Department (Lynne Landau): Community education on self-defense and assault, learn self-defense Solo Center (Betty Dagett): counseling, referral, etc. with newly single people Northwest Pilot Project (Holly Nelson): advocacy, counseling, etc. with indigent, elderly, inner-city women American Civil Liberties Union: Research, writing, and action on legal issues Columbia River Girl Scout Council (Peggy Mihata): Organize and publicize G.S. troops, organize and coordinate a Career Conference for adolescent girls Domestic Violence Intervention: Train for counseling and advocacy Women's Resource Center, YWCA (Anne Bagwell): Train for direct service work, call-in and walk-in, referral, must be sensitive to ethnic and gay issues Self-Help Group Project, Regional Human Services Research Institute, School of Social Work, Portland State (Nancy Barron): Organize support groups for returning women, help in evaluation of rap groups Women's Union, Educational Activities, Portland State (Megan Boyle): Organize women's activities on campus, initiate programs and organize women to be involved in them Woman's Place Bookstore: Work with collective in selling, ordering, managing the store and its budget Planned Parenthood: Train for contraceptive education Women's Shelter, Washington County (Catherine Marvin): Do crisis line work, advocacy with residents Rape Relief Hotline (Kathy Oliver): Train for hotline work, work on publicity, community education, research, fundraising Raphael House: Battered women's shelter, crisis and advocacy work 230 Portland State University Women's Studies 409: PRACTICUM FALL TERM 1980 Objectives - Integrating course material with actual experience, learning to critique and analyze both; - Moving beyond recognition of women's oppression to active ways of coping with and changing women's position; - Learning more about issues and controversies shaping the lives of women in similar and different situations from ourselves and how to work with them for social change, - Creating a feminist learning context for developing skills in problem solving, organizational analysis, interpersonal communication, co-working, and constructive criticism; - Gaining skills and information that may serve in longer term personal and career goals; - Acting as a bridge between the Women's Studies Certificate Program and the women in the Portland area, especially, but not solely, feminist activists. Placements Many of you have already arranged placements and met with me. Those who have not can choose several prospective placements from a list I have assembled. It is your responsibility (and an important learning experience) to arrange an interview at your chosen placement and meet with your prospective supervisor. The decision to take a placement lies with you, the supervisor, and me, as course instructor. At the interview you should find out just what the organization does and what would be your place in it. Be sure the supervisor understands the terms of your work commitment in Practicum and agrees to those terms. During the second or third class meeting (depending on when all of you have firm placement commitments), we will draft letters to your supervisors that will constitute a contract between the two of you. You will want this as a reference, should differences come up in the course of the term, but also to assure you have thoroughly thought out and understood the work you will be doing. Class Structure Practicum has two distinct components: placement work and the class meeting. You are expected to complete 88 hours of placement work (8 hours/week for the 11 weeks of the term) for three credits, and commensurate work based on that ratio for four, five, or six credits. Just how you distribute those hours is up to you and your supervisor. You may have an intensive, multi-day training to go through that will eat up lots of your work commitment all at once, or you may want to work steadily a certain number of hours each week. Be sure you discover how to get the full number of hours in at the beginning of the term and arrange to do so. Later on, your other classes will be more of a burden and I will not be inclined to grant incompletes just because you didn't budget your time well. (That's something to learn from the course, too.) The class meets as a seminar for an hour each week. The class has a twofold purpose. First, it is a place for sharing experience and discussing issues that arise directly out of your placement work. Second, it will provide you with a perspective on your work that comes out of our readings on issues relating to feminism and work. Each session will be divided between these two tasks; our time is short and we will have to make much of it. The reading list (for which there is a course packet) is not set up week-by-week. It seems better to discuss issues as the need for them arises out of your work placements. [ Thanks to Paula Mindes and Marti Bombyck at Women's Studies at ] [ the University of Michigan, whose work on U-M's "Women in the ] [ Community" course I have integrated here. ] Grading and Evaluation Practicum is graded pass/no pass, so it is not necessary to do any fancy footwork about assigning grades. You will receive a "pass" for satisfactorily fulfilling the following: - Completing placement work commitment. This means all the hours and also receiving an evaluation from your supervisor. This evaluation will be for sharing--giving you information about your work from a second perspective, telling me some things I should know about future placements in that agency, and giving the class a further basis for discussion of your and their work experience. - Attending class regularly and participating in our discussions. This is extremely important. This is a support group as well as a seminar; you should use it as both. We are all contracting with each other to be helpful and evaluative about each other's work as well as our own. Obviously, this entails that you have read the assigned material in advance and done some thinking about it. - Writing a course log. I hesitate to use any of the terms log/journal/diary, for what I have in mind here is somewhat unlike what they traditionally mean. You will want to note down personal reflections on your work and also log your hours as the term goes on. But, also, your log will be reactions to readings and often responses to specific questions that are presented in class. The idea is that you read, think, and observe, with your log entry as the basis for our class discussions. You may all want to keep some hours just before class meeting for this task. At the end of the term your log will be a personalized, small theory of feminism and feminist social action. - Evaluating the class and your placement. This will be the final assignment. I have some components of the evaluation in mind; we will generate others out of our class discussion. Second Term Students Since the program requires six credits of Practicum for the Certificate, some students may be in their second term in the class. Second-term students are a valuable resource for all of us and we will expect you to take an active and sometimes leadership role in class. Additional readings may be asked of you, if some of the work is redundant. Reading List The reading list contains material relating to such issues as workplace politics, interpersonal interaction, power and organizational structures, volunteerism, and feminist process. We will read from it as issues arise. Eleanor Olds Batchelder and Linda Nathan Marks, 1969. "Creating Alternatives: A Survey of Women's Projects," Heresies 2:3, pp. 94-127. Charlotte Bunch, 1974. "The Reform Tool Kit," Quest 1:1, pp. 37-51. Mary-Therese Riccio, 1978. "If I've Upset You, You've Got the Message," Quest 4:4, pp. 37-41. Andre Leo, 1973. "ADC: Marriage to the State," in A. Koedt, E. Levine, and A. Rapone, eds.,Radical Feminism. Quadrangle, pp. 222-27. Barbara Benedict Bunker and Edith Whitfield Seashore, 1976. "Power, Collusion, Intimacy-Sexuality, Support: Breaking the Sex-Role Stereotypes in Social and Organizational Settings," in A. Sargent, ed., Beyond Sex Roles. West Publishing, pp. 356-70. Joreen (Jo) Freeman,1973. "The Tyranny of Structurelessness," in A. Koedt, E. Levine, and A. Rapone, eds., Radical Feminism. Quadrangle Books, pp. 285-299. Pam Mavrolas and Jim Crowfoot, n.d., "Group Process." Manuscript, The University of Michigan, 5 pp. Nancy Henley and Jo Freeman, 1979. "The Sexual Politics of Interpersonal Behavior," in J. Freeman, ed., Women: A Feminist Perspective, Second Edition. Mayfield, pp. 474-86. Joyce Rothschild-Whitt, 1979. "Conditions for Democracy: Making Participatory Organizations Work," in J. Case and R. Taylor, eds., Co-ops, Communes, and Collectives, Pantheon, pp. 215-44. Heidi Hartmann, 1976. "Capitalism, Patriarchy, and Job Segregation by Sex," Signs 1:3, pt. 2, pp. 137-69. Francine D. Blau, 1979. "Women in the Labor Force: An Overview," in J. Freeman, ed., Women: A Feminist Perspective, Second Edition. Mayfield, pp. 26-48. Kay Lehman Schlozman, 1979. "Women and Unemployment: Assessing the Biggest Myths,: in J. Freeman, ed., Women. A Feminist Perspective, Second Edition, Mayfield, pp. 290-312. Rosabeth Moss Kanter, 1977. "Power", Chapter Seven of Men and Women of the Corporation. Basic Books, pp. 164-205. Doris B. Gold, 1971. "Women and Volunteerism" in V. Gronick and B. Moran, eds., Woman in Sexist Society, Basic Books, pp. 533-554. Eugenie Bolger, 1975, "Take it Out of My Salary;" Ellen Sulzberger Straus, 1975, "In Defense of Unpaid Labor;" Margaret A. Sanborn and Caroline Bird, 1975, "The Big Giveaway: What Volunteer Work is Worth," Ms., February, pp. 70-75, 87--89. W.S. Practicum 30 Sept. 80 Name ____________________________ Certificate Student? ___ Year of Study ______ Address and Phone ___________________________________________ Placement ______________________ Supervisor ________________ Address ______________________________________ Phone ________ Work description: Women's issues of interest to you: Previous involvement in feminism/women's groups: Previous work/volunteer experience: Background relevant to placement, if any Topics or issues relating to women in organizations, feminism, social action and social change that you think are important as part of this course: Why are you taking practicum? Other information I should have: THE GEORGE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY WOMEN'S STUDIES PROGRAM WOMEN'S STUDIES 283/284: PRACTICUM (General Information) Practicum: Description Students registering for WStu 283: Practicum are expected to define a field experience in an appropriate community setting, and to devote at least 100 hours toward a project which both highlights women's studies issues and con- tributes toward functional skill development. The student may, in agreement with an agency supervisor, function as a counselor, administrator, teacher, researcher and/or program developer as suits their combined interests and needs. In short, it is to be an experience which provides knowledge, insights and experience not available in a traditional academic setting. The Practicum course is required of masters degree students not electing the thesis, and is seen as a link connecting the student's coursework, the world of work and her personal, academic and career goals. It is an opportunity for knowledge and skills to be developed and applied and for reality to be tested. A Practicum experience could also relate to a student's research or teaching interests. Persons registering for WStu 283: Practicum should have completed 24 hours of coursework toward the degree and should consult with the Practicum Coordinator at least eight weeks prior to course registration to consolidate Practicum objectives and review possibilities. Sometimes, however, exceptions to the 24 hour rule will be made, especially if the student's program of study and career goals are well defined. Practicum students, in addition to their placement activities, will be expected to participate in monthly Practicum Meetings, and to write one paper. Credit will be given on a credit/no credit basis, and evaluation will be based on the agency supervisor's written evaluation, the paper, participation in group meetings, and a closing interview with the Practicum Coordinator. Doing a Double Practicum Women's Studies 284: Practicum is an elective course for students interested in a more intensive practicum experience, or experience in a second setting. Procedures are the same as for WStu 283, and approval is needed from the Practicum Coordinator prior to registration. Procedures for Practicum Placements Students registering for a Practicum in the women's studies program are responsible, with supportive assistance from the Practicum Coordinator, for finding a practicum setting which will meet their needs and meet program requirements. What follows is a list of procedures relative to practicum placements which each student should be familiar with: 1. Practicum coordinator interviews student concerning interests, needs, and practicum possibilities. 2. Student and Coordinator review practicum possibilities, both those the student has generated herself and others the Coordinator has on file. 3. Student and Coordinator research further possibilities as needed. 4. Student and Coordinator select desired agency/agencies. 5. Student or Coordinator makes appointment in agency; visits agency; discusses project possibility; explains requirements of the women's studies program. 6. Student and designated Agency Supervisor agree to work together defining the specifics of a practicum project. 7. Student writes a one page list of her "learning objectives" for her practicum placement. 8. Agency Supervisor writes a one page list of her "project objectives" for the practicum student. 9. Student submits both 7. and 8. to the Practicum Coordinator. 10. Letter from Practicum Coordinator to Agency Supervisor to formalize student placement and agreed upon learning objectives and activities. 11. Student attends monthly Practicum Meetings, beginning the second Wednesday of the semester, 5:00 p.m. to 6:00 p.m., Women's Studies office, to share experiences, discuss issues and integrate practicum experience with future career goals. 12. Student keeps a record of her work experience, hours spent and meetings with supervisor. (Some kind of journal of the practicum experience would be most helpful when preparing the required paper later.) 13. Practicum Coordinator confers with Agency Supervisor and student as needed. 14. Student completes and submits written assignment to Practicum Coordinator. 15. Practicum Coordinator requests evaluation of student's performance from Agency Supervisor. 16. Agency Supervisor submits evaluation of student's performance to Practicum Coordinator. 17. Practicum Coordinator and student meet to discuss paper, the Agency Supervisor's evaluation, and the practicum experience as a whole. 18. Practicum Coordinator prepares grade sheet for Office of Registrar. Comments on Contracting Procedures 7 and 8 above are designed to make as explicit as possible the agreement that a student and an Agency Supervisor are making with each other. In making such a "contract" all involved have a written record to go back to in case clarification is needed, and when the practicum experience is finished one can assess whether or not each person's objectives have been met. The Practicum Coordinator is available to conduct a session on developing a contract and on management by objectives if Practicum students want to use one of the Wednesday meetings in this fashion. Evaluation of Practicum Experiences As noted in the general description, a student's grade in the practicum experience will be based on four items: (1) the Agency Supervisor's written evaluation, (2) a paper, (3) participation in Practicum Meetings, and (4) a closing interview with the Practicum Coordinator. Since the Practicum experience is viewed as an opportunity to reflect on issues, skills and career plans, evidence of each will be taken into account. A practicum student, therefore, will want to keep the following questions in mind: 1. How do I observe women's studies issues in the practicum setting (e.g., power, dependency, sexuality, competition, sexism and discrimination, changing roles, special problems, etc.)? 2. What skills am I developing/expanding in my practicum placement? What skills do I wish I had or do I want to develop further? 3. How does my practicum experience relate to my future career objectives? Do I want to pursue a similar kind of work? What have I learned about myself that will influence the kind of work I pursue? 4. Is the relationship I am developing with my supervisor supportive, helpful, guiding, challenging, nominal, peripheral, antagonistic, neutral, etc.? In other words, am I making the best use of my supervisor as an aide in meeting my learning objectives? Career Counseling The Practicum experience is viewed as a setting in which the student is preparing for implementing later career goals. One can use it as a time for focusing, reflecting and evaluating one's potential and readiness for a particular kind of work. Insofar as possible, therefore, the Practicum Coordinator is available for career counseling, and can be called on to lead career planning sessions during Wednesday meetings if the students wish her to do so. THE GEORGE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY WOMEN'S STUDIES PROGRAM WOMEN'S STUDIES 283/284: PRACTICUM Write an evaluative summary of your practicum experience in which you analyze its relationship to your academic preparation, your special research and vocational/professional/political concerns and your post-degree plans. Please include: 1. A "one page summary" of what your practicum involved (suitable for Xeroxing to share with others interested in practicum examples). 2. Indication of the extent to which your project activities and learning objectives were completed and, if not, why not. 3. Reflection of women's issues within the practicum setting (power, leadership, competition, sexism, sexuality, recognition of competence, etc.). 4. Learning what you had which was unexpected but useful. 5. Skills developed and how they relate to future work plans. 6. Problems you had and how you dealt with them. 7. Comments about how you related to your supervisor. 8. Things you wish you had known in retrospect. 9. Feedback to the Practicum Coordinator about your experience--things you liked and things that could be improved related to program administration, counseling and group sessions. 10. How satisfied are you with your own performance? 11. Any other comments that are pertinent to a summary evaluation of your practicum experience including overall value of the experience in the Women's Studies Program context. Please also include on the "cover sheet": - Your name - Women's Studies 283 (or 284) - Practicum - Name and address of agency - Name and title of supervisor - Approximate number of hours completed - Brief description of the project THE GEORGE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY WOMEN'S STUDIES PROGRAM Evaluation of Practicum Student (WStu 283-284) Name of Student_________________________________________________________ Brief Job Description: I. Overall, how would you rate the student on her accomplishments in this setting? II. To what extent did you meet your designated project objectives? If they were not met, why not? III. Do you feel the student is well suited to doing further work of this nature? IV. What kinds of things did she do most effectively? V. What skills do you think she should develop further? VI. Any other comments you would like to make regarding the student or practicum experience as a whole: VII. Would you like to have another practicum student? (Check one) ( ) definitely ( ) possibly ( ) no If yes, to do what? If no, why not? Signature________________________________________Date__________________ Title____________________________________________Phone_________________ Organization___________________________________________________________ Please return to: THE GEORGE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY WOMEN'S STUDIES 2025 I Street, NW Washington, D.C. 20052 UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN WOMEN'S STUDIES 350/351 WOMEN AND THE COMMUNITY Women's Studies 350 combines work experience in the community with an academic analysis of women's status and experience in organizations. Internships are available in areas such as law reform, health care, reproduction, rape, media, domestic violence advocacy, day care, and counseling. Class topics include the analysis of organizations, voluntarism, feminist social reforms, power, sexism in the work place, and leadership roles. Emphasis is placed on the development of skills to help students form and attain their career goals. Students arrange schedules for five hours a week in the community in addition to two hours a week in class, Tuesday 7-9 p.m. Prerequisites: W.S. 240, 200, or permission of the instructor. Women's Studies 351 is a 2-credit sequence for students who have completed WS 350. Most students continue to work in their previous field placement for a required commitment of 5 hours weekly. In addition, they meet individually with the instructor monthly and complete a written project, frequently a project useful to their placement site. Course Objectives 1. To move beyond the recognition of women's oppression by exploring various reforms and activities for improving the situation of women. 2. To provide a feminist experiential learning context for the development of skills in problem-solving, organizational analysis, etc., which can contribute to the formation or acquisition of students' career goals while serving women's needs. 3. To integrate academic materials and topics with students' experiences in ways which are relevant and applicable to students' immediate and long-term interests and concerns. Course Structures and Process Student will select a placement or internship from the list provided at the beginning of the term. They will work in those placements for an average of 5 hours per week throughout the semester until approximately December 9. In addition to regular participation in placements, students are expected to attend and participate in class Tuesday nights. The first hour of class will usually be devoted to lecture/discussion of the week's topic and assigned readings. The second hour will usually be a discussion focused on students' placement experiences as they relate to the topic or what is going on, what's interesting, bothersome, fun, difficult, etc. It is expected that students will have completed all the required readings for the topic prior to class so that discussions will be productive and worthwhile. The format of the course will vary (lecture, discussion, exercises, guest speakers, etc.). However, throughout the course students are encouraged to share with each other some of their readings, and to provide each other with a notion of what their different organizations are like. Students are also encouraged to fully utilize office hours to discuss course material or their placement. It is very important that in the event there are problems at the placement or in keeping up with the course work, the student come see me so that problems can be smoothed out before they become disastrous. Student Evaluation Unlike many experiential learning courses, this course is not graded on a pass/fail basis. Though the whole grading system may be viewed as a necessary evil, it is important to make it as fair as possible and to use it constructively. Therefore, I attempt to fully explicate grading standards before assignments are due, and if these are unclear, students should ask for more clarification. I also try to provide considerable written feedback as well as verbal feedback. If this is not enough, ask for more--particularly if you are unsatisfied with my feedback and your grade. 350 Students 1. Logs: Students are required to keep a weekly log with dated entries that describe and analyze their recent experiences in their placements, specifically answers any assigned questions or exercises, analyzes/reacts to readings, and critically integrates the intellectual and personal levels of their overall course experience. Logs will be evaluated for (1) application of concepts and ideas to placement experiences; (2) integration of readings, placements and class sessions; (3) critical analysis of readings; (4) personal reaction to readings, class sessions, and placement experiences. I appreciate ongoing feedback about the course and what could be improved, etc., though this is not required. Remember, though, quality is preferred over quantity: be concise but elaborate ideas as needed. The logs do not need to be typed as long as your writing is reasonably legible. Due Dates: October 21, November 18, and December 9. They will be graded immediately and returned to students before the next class session in individual appointments where logs and placements can be discussed. 2. Placements: Near the end of the semester, students will be asked to give evaluation forms to their supervisors or placement sponsors. Evaluators will answer questions concerning the student's reliability in showing up at the agreed time and place, responsibility in completing agreed tasks, ability to handle problems, attitudes and behaviors toward co-workers, clients, overall quality of work, strength/weaknesses, etc. In addition, a written evaluation will be given to you at the end of the term for your files. You do not receive an A-B-C grade from these evaluations, but extreme responses (positives or negatives) will be taken into account in the determination of your final grade. 3. Miscellaneous: I will also take into account students' class attendance, participation, supportiveness/respectfulness toward other students, and your personal development over the course of the term. 351 Students Advanced students have the option of keeping a log or writing a log or writing a written project that is based on research, is an essay, or in someway is directly useful to the placement in addition to usual placement work. Examples include: a biography of a feminist activist, a paper on the history and development of rape crisis centers, a description and analysis of a national women's organization (e.g., NARAL, NOW, National Women's Political Caucus, WAVEPAM, etc.), a referral directory for your organization, a training manual, etc. In addition to a written component, 351 students will also be evaluated for their placement activities (see above). Univ . of Michigan WOMEN AND THE COMMUNITY Readings 9/9 Introduction to course placements 9/16 Review of placement progress, introduction to syllabus, etc. I. Women's Community Service 9 /23 A. Voluntarism - Gold, Doris. "Women and Voluntarism," in V. Gronick and B. Moran (eds. ), "Woman in Sexist Society", New York: Basic Books, 1971, pp. 533-554. - Bolger, E. "Take It Out of My Salary: Volunteers on the Prestige Circuit" and Straus, E. "In Defense of Unpaid Labor" and Sanborn, M. and Bird, C. "The Big Giveaway: What Volunteer Work is Worth" in Ms., Feb. 1975, 70-75, 87-89. -*Loesser, H. "Women, Work, and Volunteering", Appendix D, Boston: Beacon Press, 1974, pp. 211-218. 9/30 B. Making History and Tracing Origins - Sanford, W. "Working Together Growing Together: A Brief History of the Boston Women's Health Collective," Heresies, Spring 1979, 2(3), pp. 83-92. - Evans, S. "Tomorrow's Yesterday: Feminist Consciousness and the Future of Women" in Berkin and Norton (eds. ), Women of America: A History, Boston : Houghton-Mifflin, 1979, pp .389-415 . 10/7 C. Feminist Reforms: Women Working with Women for Women - Bunch, C. "The Reform Tool Kit," Quest, 1974, 1(1), 37-51. 10/14 D. Race and Class Differences in Community Activism - Brightman, C . "The Women of Williamsburg, " Working Papers, Jan./Feb. 1978, 6(1), 50-57. - Delapire, J. "Women and the Latin Community," Quest, 4(4), Fall 1978, 6-14. - Combahee River Collective, "Why Did They Die?" A Document of Black Feminism, Radical America, 13(6), Nov.-Dec.,1979, pp..41-50. II. Working In Organizations 10/21 A. Analyzing Our Organizations *JOURNALS DUE* - Handouts will be distributed 10/28 B. Power - Kanter, R. "Power," Men and Women of the Corporation, NewYork: Basic Books, 1977, pp. 164-205. - Johnson, P. "Women and Power," Journal of Social Issues,32(3), 1976, pp. 99-110. 11/4 C. Women and Leadership - Staines, G., Tavris, C., and Jayartne, T. "The Queen Bee Syndrome," Psychology Today. - Kanter, R. "Numbers: Minorities and Majorities" and "Contributions to Theory: Sturctural Determinants of Behavior in Organizations" in Men and Women of the Corporation, Chapters 8 and 9. 11/11 D. Sexual Harrassment - Bularzik, M. "Sexual Harrassment at the Workplace," Radical America, 12(4), July-Aug. 1978, pp. 25-43. - Farley, Lin. "Sexual Harrassment: A Profile" and "Men,"Chapters 2 and 10 in Sexual Shakedown. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1978. 11/18 E. Collective Strategies to Change the Workplace *JOURNALS DUE* - "We Walk the Line: The Struggle at Preterm," Radical America, 13(2), 1979, pp. 9-24. - Wertheimer, B. "Union is Power: Sketches from Women's Labor History" in J. Freeman (ed.) Women: A Feminist Perspective, 2nd edition, 1979, pp. 339-358. -*UNION W.A.G.E. Organize! "A Working Woman's Handbook", 1975, pp. 4-17 11/25 F. Stress and Support Systems: Personal Survival Strategies - Bardwick, J.M. and Douvan, E. "When Women Work," in R. Loring and H. Otto (eds.) New Life Options: The Working Woman's Resource Book, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976, pp. 32-45. - Maslach, C. "Burned Out," Human Behavior, Sept. 1976, 16-22. - Genovese, R. "A Women's Self-Help Network as a Response to Service Needs in the Suburbs," Signs 1980, S(3) Suppl. pp. S249-S256. 12/2 G. Feminist Collectives and Participatory Democracy - Hireeb, "The Tyranny of Structurelessness" in Loedt, Levine, and Rapone (eds.) Radical Feminism, New York: Quadrangle Books, 1973, pp. 285-299. - Crow, G., Riddle, D., Sparks, C. "The Process/Product Debate, "Quest 4(4), Fall 1978, pp. 15-36. - Rothschild-Witt, J. "Conditions for Democracy: Making Partipatory Organizations Work" in J. Case and R. Taylor (eds.), Co-ops, Communes, and Collectives, New York: Pantheon Books, 1979, pp. 215-244. 12/9 *JOURNALS DUE* - Leftovers, wrap-up and evaluation. (Readings with an asterisk (*) are not required but recommended.) UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN STUDENT PLACEMENT EVALUATION Women and the Community (Women's Studies 350/351) This evaluation consists of two parts. The first part is a series of questions regarding the performance of the student in her placement. The second part requires a separate written evaluation which will be copied and returned to the student for her files. It is possible that the written evaluation will be used as a letter of reference by the student at a later time. Please allow sufficient time to thoughtfully complete these materials as they will provide the necessary information which will help form the basis of the student's final grade. PART ONE STUDENT'S NAME ______________________________________________________________ COMMUNITY PLACEMENT _________________________________________________________ 1. On the average, approximately how many hours per week did the student volunteer? _________ 6 or more _________ 4-5 _________ 3 or less 2. Was the student prompt and reliable in keeping agreed appointments, meetings, or work shifts? ________ Always ________ Most of the time ________ Some of the time ________ Hardly ever 3. How well did the student get along with co-workers? ________ Very well ________ Good for the most part (e.g., minor problems) ________ Problematic (PLEASE EXPLAIN:) ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 4. Overall (and within the bounds of what could be realistically expected), did the student fulfill the responsibilities she accepted? ________ Yes ________ No (PLEASE EXPLAIN:) ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 5. If relevant, was the student respectful and helpful toward clients/consumers of your organization's services? _________ Good relationships with clients _________ Fair or adequate relationships with clients _________ Strained relationships with clients (PLEASE EXPLAIN:) ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ _________ Not applicable 6. If relevant, did the student complete the necessary training period/socialization phase of your organization? _________ Yes _________ No (PLEASE EXPLAIN:) _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _________ Not applicable 7. Please briefly describe the student's activities, responsibilities, etc., in her placement this term. 8. Please briefly describe your perception of the student's attitudes and behaviors regarding her work and her relationships with her co-workers, etc. 9. How could the student's contribution to this or similar work settings be improved? 10. How could the student's contribution to this or similar work settings be improved? 11. Additional comments on student performance? 12. Based on my experience working with student(s) from Women and the Community this term, I/my organization ______ is willing to continue offering student placements next term ______ would like to discuss further continuation of student placement offerings ______ would prefer to discontinue offering student placements 13. If you have other comments about the student placement system, etc. that would be helpful for the future, please add them below: PART TWO On the following page please (1) briefly summarize what the student did her placement this term, and (2) generally describe/evaluate her competence, skills, attitude, etc. Thank you for completing these materials. STUDENT EVALUATION WOMEN AND THE COMMUNITY (Women's Studies 350/351) STUDENT'S NAME_______________________________________________ COMMUNITY PLACEMENT__________________________________________ Name (please print)_______________________ Signature_________________________________ Relationship to student___________________ Date______________________________________ UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND COLLEGE PARK 20742 WOMEN'S STUDIES PROGRAM 0204 BEHAVIORAL AND (301) 454-3841 SOCIAL SCIENCES BUILDING WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNSHIP PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITIES OF AGENCY SUPERVISOR During the Internship the Agency Supervisor Must: 1. Provide adequate supervision of the intern's work. An agency super- visor is usually appointed with the following responsibilities: a. Arrange an initial orientation to the organization. This is intended to give students an understanding of how activities they are involved in relate to the overall function of the organization, for example, by attending staff or organizational meetings that may be of interest. b. Complete a Progress Report. Mid-Term Evaluation. The internship director will give the student a Progress Report which must be co-signed with the agency supervisor and returned to the Women's Studies Office. This contract affirms or revises the responsibilities of the internship position and assesses the quality of the intern's work. c. Keep the internship director informed about all changes and/or problems regarding the internship. d. Schedule weekly or bi-weekly meetings with the student, to evaluate the effectiveness of the work being done. e. Complete a Final Evaluation concerning the student's activities which will be requested by the Internship Director. Direct any questions you may have to: Director, Internship Program Women's Studies Program University of Maryland College Park, Maryland 20742 (301) 454-3841 UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND COLLEGE PARK 20742 WOMEN'S STUDIES PROGRAM 0204 BEHAVIORAL AND (301) 454-3841 SOCIAL SCIENCES BUILDING PROCEDURE FOR STUDENT INTERN ENROLLMENT 1. Student makes initial contact with WMST office and fills out a STUDENT INTEREST FORM (see attached). The purpose of this form is to: (a) establish student's areas of interest and pertinent data that will enable the director to keep this student aware of present and future internship possibilities, and (b) to record transactions between us: names and dates of organization referrals, interviews, etc. 2. An interview follows immediately with the internship director or an appointment is made for shortly thereafter. Together, the student and director determine what organizations best fit the student's needs by reviewing the available material on each organization found in alphabetized folders. Oftentimes, this information has been solicited from the organization and includes a job description for the intern (see attached). The student is now prepared to call the organization herself. Encouraging student initiative is a necessary part of the internship experience; and while from the outset the student knows that individual responsibility is required, she also has received the director's assurance of support and detailed information that allows her to make an informed inquiry. 3. Student, armed with appropriate information, makes phone calls and usually sets up interview with organization to then call the WMST internship director with results. 4. Interview takes place after the student has made herself familiar with the "Contract Work Sheet" (see attached) and perhaps takes this with her in order to confirm training schedules, hours, responsibilities. 5. Contract Work Sheet is returned to internship director with her own and field supervisor's signature. 6. Student is requested to inform director of class schedule for following semester as soon as possible in order to arrange a time for bi-weekly seminar. UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND COLLEGE PARK 20742 WOMEN'S STUDIES PROGRAM 0204 BEHAVIORAL AND ( 301 ) 454-3841 SOCIAL SCIENCES BUILDING WMST 386: FIELD WORK (6-8 hours weekly, to be arranged) WMST 387: FIELD WORK ANALYSIS (Wednesday 7:00-8:15 p.m.) THE FIELD ANALYSIS SEMINAR Course Objectives: The seminar which accompanies the women's studies internship will focus on women and work. We will read and analyze different perspectives and theories you are likely to confront in your placements and in your futures as working women. Considerable discussion time will be devoted to your placement experiences as they interest, frustrate and challenge you. In our bi-weekly meetings students are encouraged to share with co-seminar members incidents that occur on the job so that together we can explore the issues to be faced in implementing feminist theory and actualizing feminist commitment. Learning together and from one another is a primary objective of this course. Requirements: Attendance. You are expected to attend each seminar meeting. If, for some extenuating circumstance, you must miss a class, notify either me or another member in advance of our meeting. Bi-weekly classes mean that we will come together only seven times during the term, so full attendance is extremely important to the progress and coherence of our group. In other words, attendance is mandatory. Participation. This seminar is focused on you and your experiences. Your participation is required and considered seriously as a grading component. You are each responsible for listening as well as responding to group members. Active listening is as important as verbal participation in this course, and we will look at various communication/cooperation skills as part of our work this semester. Readings. For each session there will be assigned readings, which you'll find in your study packets. Written Work. Students will keep journals with dated entries that describe analyze their recent placement experiences and react to assigned readings, specific questions and exercises. The purposes behind your journal are varied. There should be two sections: First, a place to log straightforward accounts of your hours and tasks. Anyone who looks at this section should have a clear idea of what you do every day you work. Catalogue this information daily. At the end of the semester these pages will be collected and filed in the women's studies program office. Second, a place where you react: analyze, complain, exclaim and consider your placement in relation to the seminar readings and discussions. This part of the journal should be written once a week, in depth. It's a good idea to jot down notes for your weekly entry directly after your working hours. Please write on every other line and leave margins wide enough for my comments. Use a notebook that allows you to remove and submit pages without disrupting the continuity of your progress. The journal will be evaluated for: (1) application of concepts and seminar discussions to placement experience; (2) personal reactions to readings, class discussions and placement experiences; (3) critical analysis of reading. I prefer quality writing to quantity and will review the journals and grade them twice during the semester. Feel free to use the journal to comment on your experiences in the women's studies internship program and field analysis seminar. Your suggestions, questions and criticisms are not only welcome, but highly valued in this class. Learning Contracts. Due September 17, 1980. All signatures must be included except my own. Before submitting, be sure you have made the necessary number of xeroxed copies for all concerned. Mid-Term Evaluations - Student and Supervisor. Your self-evaluation form is due October 22, 1980. Your supervisor must be given her/his evaluation form on or before October 22 (include an addressed envelope to me) with directions to return your evaluation by October 29, 1980. Resume. Due November 19, 1980. We will have a resume-writing workshop before this date. This assignment will not be graded. Supervisor's Final Evaluation. Submitted with envelope by November 26, 1980, to be returned to me by December S, 1980. Self Evaluations are due at the same time. Journals Submitted: October 22, 1980 and December 10, 1980. UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND WOMEN'S STUDIES INTERNSHIP Fall, 1979 Field Work and Field Work Analysis Student/Program/Agency/Faculty Agreement Worksheet ________ credits ________ credits requested _______ grading option Student's Name _________________________________________________________ Address ________________________________________________________________ Telephone ____________________Social Security No. ______________________ Major Field of Study____________________________________________________ Semester hours completed________________________________________________ Women's Studies Certificate Student: yes no (circle one) Faculty Advisor__________________________________________________________ (On the reverse side list women's studies courses taken, and list or describe the rest of your completed or projected program of study.) Organization student will work with:______________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ Brief description of that organization (history, function, structure...): Organization address_______________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Phone number_______________________________________________________________ Name and title of supervisor_______________________________________________ Duties student will perform at placement: (attach separate sheet if needed) Dates for beginning and ending placement___________________________________ Number of hours student will work weekly___________________________________ Schedule, if established: Type and frequency of supervision: Type of evaluation supervisor will provide to student and to Internship Director, during and at conclusion of placement: (Note: Fall semester evaluation must be complete by or before December 14.) Specify training provided by organization for the duties assigned: What are the organization's goals or expectations for this placement? What are the student's learning goals: "At the end of the experience I hope to have learned..." 1._____________________________________________________________________ 2._____________________________________________________________________ 3._____________________________________________________________________ 4._____________________________________________________________________ What are the skills/experience the student brings to the agency? Other comments: For those students requesting additional credit in Field Work Analysis Name of faculty sponsor_____________________________________________________ Department/phone____________________________________________________________ Study/analysis/research project student will undertake: (be as specific as possible) Type and frequency of faculty supervision: How will this work be evaluated, and when? What are the student's learning goals for this project, and how are they related to the organizational placement and its duties? Would it be useful/necessary/appropriate to schedule consultation between faculty sponsor and field supervisor? Other comments: (All students in Women's Studies Internship will register for 1 credit of Field Work Analysis, and participate in group seminar.) ANTIOCH COLLEGE CENTER FOR COOPERATIVE EDUCATION CO-OP SYLLABUS INTRODUCTION In the spring of 1978 the faculty of CCE agreed to reinstitute the requirement that all Antioch students prepare a paper or project demonstrating their learning during the co-op period. The paper or project should be submitted at check-in upon return to campus for the next study quarter. Students will determine whether the materials should be returned to them, placed in the CCE library, and/or distributed to other members of the faculty. During your co-op quarter you will be involved in learning in a number of contexts, both on and off the job. The purpose of the paper or project is to provide a framework for you to think about your learning during the quarter and to create a basis for discussion about that learning when you return to campus. While you should be as broad as possible in planning your educational objectives before you leave campus and completing the self-evaluation when you return, the paper or project provides the opportunity for you to focus in depth on a central aspect of your learning which is particularly meaningful to you. The paper or project should be analytical rather than merely descriptive about your learning experience. It may take any form (such as photo essay, dance, analysis of a journal) which meets the following criteria: - documentation of what you have learned; - clarity of communication; - evidence of thoughtfulness about your learning; and - care in preparation. The following syllabus has been prepared to help you and your advisors organize, understand, and evaluate the educational value of each co-op period. The heart of the syllabus is an extensive list of questions organized into four sections: Person, Place, Job, and Philosophy of Work. These questions may be helpful in identifying areas of current importance or interest to you. The list should also be consulted from time to time during the co-op period. The same issues may maintain their importance, or others may take their place. You may also do a paper or project on a topic which is not touched upon by these questions. This syllabus was prepared by a committee of CCE, Library and classroom faculty and students. CCE would like to hear your suggestions for changes in this syllabus which you think will make it more helpful. The Person Learning takes place within an individual, regardless of the context (classroom, library, job, neighborhood, home, etc.). Personal growth and understanding are a major part of the whole. Some individual change results from all educational experience. Recognizing and understanding this personal development is important to learning, and it helps with continuing self-insight and future growth. The following questions are relevant: I. Placement and Preparation (The Jumping-Off Place) - How did you feel in anticipating going on the job? Did you have any fantasies relating to the job? - How did you first hear of the job? - How did you participate in getting the job? - How did you contact your employer before leaving? - How did you work out your living arrangements before leaving? - What were your hopes and expectations about the job? - As you prepared to leave, how did it feel to be going off on your own? To be leaving friends and familiar places? - During this preparatory phase, from where did you draw your personal support? How did that work out? II. Travel Arrangements and Preparations - What problems existed in preparing to travel? - How did you travel? What happened on the way? - What did you learn? What travel skills did you develop? III. On the Job A. Beginning What was your first job contact like? Anything like you expected? How did you feel and react? What was your first day like? What were your first impressions of the people on the job? Do you remember the first time you saw where you were going to live? How did it fit your expectations? How did you react? B. Continuing As the co-op continued, what changes did you experience? How did you feel about these changes? Did your perceptions of supervisors or fellow-workers change? How did these relationships work out? How did you relate to authority, hierarchy, and responsibility? Did you make new friends? Do you or will you still keep in touch? Were you in touch with people out of your "class" and/or age group? How did you respond? Did you feel you were able to meet your needs on co-op? Where did you get personal support when you needed it? What was your experience with money? Did you earn enough? If not, how did you manage? What was your experience with financial planning and budgeting? What was the high point of your co-op experience? Low point? C. Finishing up Do you have any "unfinished business" with people you met or worked with? What didn't you say? Why? Do you wish you had done things differently? How did you react to evaluations of your work? IV. What differences do you now see between your on-campus world and your co-op world? What have you discovered about your capacity for making decisions? Has it changed? How? How would you assess your capacity for personal communication? Writing? Listening? Speaking? Were there any significant changes in your personal qualities such as empathy, sensitivity, being "up front" and "straight?" Were you able to find sources for information you needed? Did you feel comfortable with your environment? Did you experience any cultural differences with people on co-op? Behavior? Dress? Dialect? Language? Thinking? Values? What did you learn about yourself in relating to these differences? Having completed your co-op, what considered advice do you have for a first-year student about to go on co-op? The Place Co-op Locations, Settings and Environments During your Antioch career there will be several places where you will live and work. Ideally there will be a variety among them (large/small, urban/rural, live-in/on one's own). Gaining skills in coping with, observing, participating in, using, and learning from these environments is a vital part of the total educational program of the College. During co-op periods you will have an excellent opportunity to exploit these places for significant educational gains. The following is a list of relevant questions to be considered (before, during, and after the experiences): I. Culture What were the significant cultural offerings in the city or town where you worked? What was lacking? How did you use or enjoy what you found? How is your background different from the cross-cultural influences encountered where you lived and worked? Did you run into culture related difficulties? How did you grow or change as a result of these experiences? II. Learning Can you identify ideas or principles from your academic work which were illuminated or tested in the co-op environment? Are there experiences you had on co-op you wish to investigate further in courses on campus? Did you learn as much or more from the place where you were as from the job you performed? What did you learn from your location? What new knowledge, attitudes, or values have you acquired in relation to the people and places of the world in general? Or of specific locales in particular. III. Issues A. What were the major political and economic problems in the community where you were? How is the city or town organized? In what ways did you participate? What changes would you advocate and what are the prospects of achieving them? Can you analyze some of the major issues of the day in relationship to the community where you lived and worked? Examples might include questions about energy, urbanization, qualities and necessities of life, racism, sexism, political and economic forces, education, health, and the environment. Make up a rating scale for the best and worst places you knew of and rate your work and living environment according to this scale. 261 How did your community respond to emergencies, crises, or disasters? What facilities and resources were available? What was your role, and how did you participate or contribute? B. What kind of a neighborhood did you live in? Describe the people, the buildings, the life and tempo. Who lived where and why? What happened? How did you fit in? Where are businesses and industries located in the place where you worked? What sorts of clusters or mixtures exist? What dependencies were there in industrial relationships? How are these situations growing or changing, and how is this affecting the life of the people? What are the primary means of transportation in the city or town where you were? How do goods and people move about? What major transportation problems exist? What improvements are needed? How can these be brought about? IV. Personal Expectations A. How did the environment you lived and worked in fulfill or not fulfill the expectations you had in mind when you went? How would you use it differently another time? B. Finally, do you feel able to cope and survive in most or all new environments? Do you feel you can go anywhere (strange city, isolated outpost, foreign culture to live and work?) The Job The focus of most co-op experiences is the job itself. While the job is by no means everything, it does represent a major commitment of time and energy during most co-op periods. The learnings which result from co-op experiences are usually examined in terms of the workplace. The following questions address themselves to this area. I. General What suggestions would you make to another co-op student considering your present type of work? What improvements in the employer's organization and operation might you suggest? II. A. Choices How has the job helped you make choices relevant to future jobs? How has the job helped you make choices relevant to your career? Do you prefer working with people, paper, machines, or other things? B. Content What knowledge are you acquiring in your field of study? Define and describe any new educational work skills obtained during your experience. What particular skills and techniques did you learn on this job? How are they useful to you? III. Academic Indicate any specific academic courses you may want to take as a follow-up to this work period. How has this job helped you to make choices relevant to future study plans? How have your classes prepared you for this job? Can you identify principles from recent courses that have been tested as a result of this experience? IV. Social Relations A. General Some co-op students find that the work environment provides as much if not more education than the tasks they perform. To what extent does this apply in your present experience? Describe specific situations during this work period which presented problems. How were they resolved? B. The Workplace What is the organization of the workplace? Who works in what environment? Who does and does not punch a time clock? Why does the employer hire co-op students? What are the hierarchies and chains of authority? Were they built into the structure of the workplace, or did they just evolve? Is there any evidence of racism, sexism, or other human rights violations? How are the various job classifications distributed among members of the various ethnic groups, races, social classes, and sexes? Is there mobility for people to move up the job ladder? What do various workers do with their breaks? What modes of behavior are necessary for a worker to "fit right in" with the organization? How are health and safety issues involved with this job? What improvements seem to be needed in the workplace and how might they be brought about? C. Work and Society What factors determine the training for the jobs? Who gets trained? Who determines what are the precepts of the training? What is the role of the employer? Where is the work done? Who pays the salary? Why? How did they get into a position to be employers? By whom and by what process is it decided what the compensation shall be? What is the role of the occupation in society? What are the fruits of the labor? Do they meet real or created needs? Who benefits or is otherwise affected by this occupation and in what ways? What is the role of the worker in this occupation in society and how is this role determined? How is the workplace related to the community in which it resides? What alternatives exist or have existed to the way in which the job is now done? This would include historical alternatives, alternatives from other societies, and utopian as well as other hypothetical alternatives. D. The Student in the Job How did your particular job contribute to the overall function of the organization for which you worked? How did you feel about your work; interested? bored, etc? Why? Were these feelings engendered by factors inherent in the work itself or by the nature of the specific job situation that you had? Philosophy of Work Many people spend a lifetime attempting to develop an individual and/or collective philosophy of work. Often it is useful to revise such a framework due to individual and societal changes. Some people seem to give little thought to these philosophical matters, although just about everyone has attitudes about enjoyment and satisfaction in different kinds of work. The following questions address these issues. I. Enjoyment of Work Did you enjoy your job? In what ways? Generally, do you enjoy working? Why? How? Under what circumstances? How do you measure work "success?" II. Defining Work How do you define "work?" Where did your definition originate? Have you developed a philosophy of work? If so, can you describe it? How did it change or develop on the job? Is it important or desirable to work out a personal philosophy of work? How dependent is your philosophy of work on the society in which you live? III. Types and Purposes of Work What is the best kind of job? The worst kind? What is the function and future of manual labor, assembly-line, and regimented work in our society? What is the relationship between work and leisure? How does work relate to the necessities of life and your sense of well-being? Who or what should benefit from work? MORE SPECIFIC EVALUATION OF THE STUDENT'S WORK Relations with others __ Exceptionally well accepted __ Works well with others __ Gets along satisfactorily __ Some difficulty working with others __ Works very poorly with others Reaction to work __Outstanding in enthusiasm __Very interested and industrious __Average in diligence and interest __Somewhat indifferent __Negative-not interested Judgment __Exceptionally mature __About average in making decisions __Usually makes the right decision __Often uses poor judgment __Consistently uses bad judgment Dependability __Completely dependable __Above average in dependability __Usually dependable __Sometimes neglectful or careless __Unreliable Initiative and self reliance __Demonstrates outstanding initiative __Seeks out new responsibilities __Works well independently __Follows directions adequately __Requires constant supervision Quality of work __Excellent __Very good __Good __Below average __Unsatisfactory WOULD YOU HIRE THIS STUDENT IN AN APPROPRIATE JOB ON A PERMANENT BASIS? yes___ no___ PLEASE COMMENT ON WAYS IN WHICH THE STUDENT MIGHT IMPROVE PERFORMANCE ON THE NEXT WORK ASSIGNMENT. ____________________________________________ ______________________________ Signature of Supervisor Title Date_________________________ Has this been discussed with the student? Yes___ No___ ANTIOCH COLLEGE YELLOW SPRINGS CO-OPERATIVE JOB RATING ________________________ ____________________ ___________________ Student's Name Academic Year Quarter Job Held __________________________________ __________________ ____________ Employing Organization City State Exact dates of Employment: From__________, 19___ to___________, 19___ Job Title or Type of Work____________________________________________ Co-operative work experience is a degree requirement for all Antioch students, and job ratings are an integral part of their college records. If possible, you are urged to discuss this rating with the student since it becomes the basis of conferences between students and their advisors when they return to campus. Please send this form to the Center for Cooperative Education, Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio 45387. PLEASE DESCRIBE THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE POSITION HELD BY THE STUDENT. PLEASE EVALUATE THE STUDENT'S WORK IN LIGHT OF THE ABOVE REQUIREMENTS. WEAL Fund Women's Equity Action League Educational & Legal Defense Fund 805 15th Street, N.W., Suite 822 Washington, D.C. 20005 202/638-1961 INTERN PROGRAM POLICIES Administrative Work WEAL Fund believes that individuals involved in an organization should be familiar with all of its aspects and should be aware of how various activities contribute to the total functioning of the organization. To develop an understanding of how organizations function and to assist WEAL Fund in conducting its work, interns are expected to spend part of their time performing administrative tasks for the Fund. Examples of some of these tasks are answering the telephone, sorting the mail, duplicating materials, filling orders for publications and otherwise helping the staff perform their tasks. Interns are also responsible for clerical work that is part of their projects. Supervision of Interns by WEAL Fund Staff Your learning experiences will be supervised by a WEAL Fund staff member who is benefitting from your services on a specific project. The following areas are important to consider. 1. Laying the Groundwork for your participation can help you understand where your contribution fits into work already completed and work planned for the future. Ask your supervisor to explain tasks so that you understand their importance within a framework of short-term and long-term goals. It is useful for you to understand the history of a project, including the need and rationale for its existence, as well as the processes used in making major decisions up to that point. 2. Regular and Open Communication is probably the single most important element in a successful experience for both intern and staff member. You should meet at a mutually convenient regular time each week. Content of such meetings should include: a. Mutual expectations b. Developing and modifying, if necessary, intern job description c. Clarifying goals and objectives of organization, staff member and intern d. Constructive feedback e. Feelings f. Specific issues and problems re: Project work g. Monitoring of progress within the framework of externally imposed deadlines Expenses For each day that an intern works a minimum of 5 hours s/he is paid a stipend of $4.00. There is no way in which WEAL Fund can repay interns for the valuable services they perform, but this allowance represents the Fund's attempts to reimburse the interns for some of the costs of volunteering. Interns keep a separate record of the hours and days worked and submit a monthly expense account voucher, after it is initialed by their supervisor. Over and above the record for the routine expense account voucher, a record for approved expenses incurred in project-related activities (e.g., bus transportation from the WEAL Fund office to a meeting) is kept and an expense requisition form, separate from the above voucher is submitted to the administrative coordinator if it is under $5.00, or to the Treasurer if it is over $5.00. For Your WEAL Fund File WEAL Fund staff are often asked to write evaluations or recommendations for interns. To do this we need more than a memory of you and so we are asking that when you leave us, you provide the following written material for your file: - A copy of any report, paper or analysis you produce during your internship (your product). - A brief report of any meeting you attend. If more than one intern attends a meeting they may jointly fill out an Out-of-Office Report Form. One copy should be given to the Administrative Coordinator for the Meeting Notebook. Another copy goes into the file of each intern who attended the meeting. WEAL Fund Women's Equity Action League Educational & Legal Defense Fund 805 15th Street, N.W., Suite 822 Washington, D.C. 20005 202/638-1961 INTERN:__________________________________________________________ Beginning Date:___________________Completion Date:_______________ Schedule:________________________________________________________ Supervisor:______________________________________________________ Project:_________________________________________________________ Weekly Meetings with Supervisor:_________________________________ Mid-Session Evaluation:__________________________________________ Job Description: Goals and objectives for WEAL Fund internship: WEAL Fund Women's Equity Action League Educational & Legal Defense Fund 805 15th Street, N.W., Suite 822 Washington, D.C. 20005 202/638-1961 WEAL FUND - INTERN CONTRACT INTERN AGREES: - to work _____ hours per week for _____ weeks. - to become thoroughly familiar with WEAL Fund's policies and procedures. - to be prompt and reliable in reporting for work; to notify the staff if unable to work as scheduled. - to be responsible to the Assistant Director of the Intern Program, and Project Supervisor. - to notify the Assistant Director at least two weeks in advance of any resignation. - to accept WEAL Fund's right to dismiss any intern for poor performance, including poor attendance. - to exercise good judgment when acting on WEAL Fund's behalf in any situation and to appropriately protect the confidentiality of all information relating to WEAL Fund. WEAL FUND AGREES: - to work out with each intern a written job description that includes tasks to be performed and guidelines for evaluation. - to provide orientation about WEAL Fund. - to train interns to whatever extent is necessary. - to provide a supervisor who will be available to guide and assist interns during work hours and conduct periodic performance evaluations. - to provide a counselor and advocate who will assist interns in evaluating their experience in relation to their own goals and who will act as liaison between the interns and the WEAL Fund staff. - to promote full understanding among the interns of WEAL Fund's operations and decisions. - to pay interns - to provide student interns with evaluations and information required by their academic institutions so they can receive credit for their internships. - to provide interns with a detailed recommendation appropriate for inclusion in an academic file or for review by potential employers. - to schedule regular meetings (arranged on a rotating basis that will enable interns to attend at least one meeting per month) for the discussion of matters of concern to either the staff or the interns. _____________________________ _______________________ for WEAL Fund Intern _____________________________ Date WEAL Fund Women's Equity Action League Educational & Legal Defense Fund 805 15th Street, N.W., Suite 822 Washington, D.C. 20005 202/638-1961 EVALUATION OF WEAL FUND INTERNS The following questions are useful in evaluating how well you adapted to WEAL Fund activities during your internship and the exact nature of your contribution to WEAL Fund. Please respond briefly. 1. Were you in the office when you planned to and did you take responsibility for the project and activities for which you contracted? 2. To what extent did you develop an understanding of the organization's functions, policies and procedures? 3. To what extent did you develop effective working relationships with other interns and staff? 4. When supervisory help and constructive criticism were offered, how did you react to them? 5. If a work-related problem arose, how were you able to solve it? 6. To what extent did you take advantage of special opportunities offered, for example, an outside conference, meeting, or an extra project? 7. Were there specific instances of your taking the initiative in performing duties or becoming involved in office functioning? Please elaborate. 8. Did you find there were opportunities to be creative, and if so, explain how you used these opportunities? 9. How effective were you in written and oral communication? Give examples. 10. On a scale of 1 (lowest) - 10 (highest), what was the overall quality of your work in regard to: - follow-through and attention to detail? ______ - initiative? ______ - accuracy? ______ - research techniques? ______ - quality of writing? ______ PROGRAM EVALUATION NAME: Part Time ( ) Full Time ( ) Average No. of hours/week________ PROJECTS: Listed below are the major programmatic not very components of the Intern Program. very worth- Please indicate their value to you.(circle) useful while A. Orientation Intern Packet 1 2 3 4 5 First day/week program 1 2 3 4 5 B. Training (specify) Office workshops 1 2 3 4 5 Outside workshops/ Meetings 1 2 3 4 5 C. Brown Bag Lunches Guests 1 2 3 4 5 Discussions with staff and other interns 1 2 3 4 5 D. Intern Meetings 1 2 3 4 5 The Intern Program is working to provide interns with a range of information and experiences. Please rate how your internship provided you with each of the following: Needed Very More Sufficient Well A. Information about WEAL and WEAL Fund 1 2 3 B. Information about legal issues affecting women 1 2 3 C. Information about governmental processes 1 2 3 D. An opportunity to learn how an office functions 1 2 3 E. An opportunity to learn how an organization functions 1 2 3 F. Opportunities to work with other groups or individuals concerned with similar issues 1 2 3 G. Opportunities to participate in the political process (e.g. meeting government or elected officials or attending hearings) 1 2 3 H. Experiences relevant to personal career planning 1 2 3 In what way were the following experiences valuable to you? If they were not of value, please explain why. INTERN OF THE DAY: PROJECT: What activities or experiences of your internship were most satisfying? Which were least satisfying? What specific skills or knowledge did you acquire during your internship? Please comment on project supervision and staff assistance you received during your internship. What do you think you have gained from your internship experience? What suggestions can you make for improvements in the Intern Program? Chapter 5: REFERENCES SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY The selected readings listed below were compiled from a variety of sources. Orders for materials should be sent directly to the publisher; a mailing address is provided where available. These publications are listed solely as an information service. The inclusion of a publication does not imply that NWSA endorses it or favors it over other publications. The editors have used information from current sources, and cannot be held responsible for inaccuracies and/or omissions. I. Directories: "Internship Programs for Women," Katie Mulligan, 1980. National Society for Internships and Experiential Education (1735 1 St., N.W., Suite 601, Washington, D.C. 20006). "The Directory of Washington Internships, 1979-80." Debra L. Mann and Grace E. Hopper, editors. National Society for Internships and Experiential Education (1735 1 St., N.W., Suite 601, Washington, D.C. 20006). "Directory of Public Service Internships: Opportunities for the Graduate, Post-Graduate and Mid-Career Professional, 1979-80." Debra Mann and Randy Bishop, editors. National Society for Internships and Experiential Education (1735 1 St., N.W., Suite 601, Washington, D.C. 20006). "The Directory of Special Opportunities for Women," Martha Merrill Dos, editor. Garrett Park Press, 19 1 (Garrett Park, MD 20766). "Internships in Washington, D.C. with a Focus on Women." WEAL Fund, 1980 (805 15th ST., N.W., Suite 822, Washington, D.C. 20005). The National Directory of Summer Internships. Career Planning Office, Haverford College, Haverford, PA 19041. "Opportunities for Prior Learning Credit: An Annotated Directory 1979." Kathleen Beecham, editor. Council for the Advancement of Experiential Education (American City Building, Columbia, Maryland 21044). "CAEL Literature Guide, 1978." Jane Porter Stutz and Joan Knapp, editors. (American City Building, Columbia, MD 21044). "CAEL Literature Guide Supplement, 1978. Jane Porter Stutz and Joan Knapp, editors (American City Building, Columbia, MD 21044). "Directory of Afro-American Resources." (Available from Order Department, R. R.Bowker Co., P.O. Box 1 07, Ann Arbor, Michigan 41806.) "Stopout! Working Ways to Learn," Joyce Mitchell, editor. Garrett Park Press, 1979 (Garrett Park, MD 20766). II. Handbooks and Learning Tools: Bose, Christine, E. and Janet Priest-Jones, "The Relationship Between Women's Studies, Career Development, and Vocational Choice," NIE, Washington, D.C., Duley, John, editor. Implementing Field Experience Education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1974. Duley, John, and Stephen L. Yelon. "Efficient Evaluation of Individual Performance in Field Placement." Council for the Advancement of Experiential Learning, 1979 (Lakefront North, Suite 300, Columbia, MD 21044). Duley, John and Sheila Gordon. "College-Sponsored Experiential Learning: A CAEL Handbook." CAEL, 1977 (American City Building, Columbia, MD 21044). "Experiential Learning Program: A Guide for Students, Faculty and Organizations." Office of Experiential Learning, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742). Knapp, Joan. "The Assessor: A CAEL Syllabus for Professionals." CAEL, 1979 (American City Building, Columbia, MD 21044). Knapp, Joan and Amiel T. Sharon. "A Compendium of Assessment Techniques." CAEL, 1975 (American City Building, Columbia, MD 21044). "The Language of Learning Contracts: A Handbook." Birmingham, Alabama: Birmingham-Southern College, 1978. MacTaggart, Terence. "Cost-Effectiveness: A CAEL Syllabus for Professionals." CAEL, 1979 (American City Building, Columbia, MD 21044). Nesbitt, Hadley. "College-Sponsored Experiential Learning--A CAEL Student Guide." CAEL, 1977 (American City Building, Columbia, MD 21044). "New Directions for Experiential Learning, A Quarterly Sourcebook." Morris T. Keeton and Pamela J. Tate, Editors-in-Chief. Sponsored by the Council for the Advancement of Experiential Learning. Willingham, Warren W. "Principles of Good Practice in Assessing Experiential Learning." CAEL, 1977 (American City Building, Columbia, MD 21044). Diane de Puydt, "The Hidden Dimension of Field Experience Programs: Problems with Field Supervisors," Journal of Cooperative Education, Vol. XV, I, Fall 1978, Indiana State University (Terre Haute, Indiana 47809). Reuben, Elaine and Mary Jo Boehm Strauss, "Women's Studies Graduates," NIE: Washington, D.C., 1980. Site Supervisor's Manual. "Community Involvement Programs." Macalester College, Saint Paul, MN 55105. "The Service Learning Educator: A Guide to Program Management." National Center for Service Learning, 806 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20006. "Step by Step: Management of the Volunteer Program in Agencies." Volunteer Bureau of Bergen County, IN (389 Main St., Hackensack, NJ 076001). "Student Intern's Manual." Community Involvement Programs. Macalester College, St. Paul, MN 55105. "Synergist" (a quarterly magazine about service learning). The National Center for Service-Learning (806 Connecticut Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20006). III. Career Development/Women and Work: Batchelder, E. and L. Marks. "Creating Alternatives: A Survey of Women's Projects," Heresies, Spring, 1979 2 (3), pp. 94-127 (Box 766 Canal St. Station, New York, NY 10013). Berson, Ginny. "Olivia: We Don't Just Process Records," Sister VII:2, Dec.-Jan ., 1976 , pp. 8-9 . Bolles, Richard N. "The Three Boxes of Life and How to Get Out of Them." Berkeley: Ten Speed Press, 1978. Bolles, Richard N. "What Color is Your Parachute." Berkeley: Ten Speed Press, Christy, R. "Women at Work Building Communities," Heresies, Spring, 1979 2 (3), pp. 11-13 (P.0. Box 766 Canal Street Station, New York, NY 10013). Harragan, Betty M. "Games Mother Never Taught You." New York: Warner Books, 1977. Hennig, Margaret and Anne Jardim. "The Managerial Woman." New York: Doubleday, 1977 . Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. "Men and Women of the Corporation." New York: Basic Books, 1 977. Pogrebin, Letty Cottin. "Getting Yours: How to Make the System Work for the Working Woman." New York: Avon, 1975. Sackmary, B. and N. Hedrick. "Assessment of the Experiential Learning of Women for College Credit in the Area of Women's Studies." Paper presented to the National Conference, Council for the Advancement of Experiential Learning (CAEL), San Francisco, October 1977. Sanford, Wendy. "Working Together, Growing Together: A Brief History of the Boston Women's Health Collective." Heresies, Spring, 1979 2 (3) j pp. 83-92. "The Cost of Living," Women: A Journal of Liberation IV:2 (1975), (3028 Greenmount Ave ., Baltimore, MD 21218). "We Walk the Line: The Struggle at Preterm," Radical American Pamphlet, 1979,13 (2). (P.0. Box B, North Cambridge, MA 12140). A WOMEN'S STUDIES GUIDE TO INTERNSHIP DIRECTORIES The following descriptions of major internship guides should be read, and used, with several considerations in mind: 1. Women's Issues/Feminist Perspectives The general guides indicate "women" or "women's issues" as topical categories, and frequently offer cross-references for further referral. Feminist students and others interested in experiential education, career development and related areas can explore these possibilities, as well as those in settings that have not been expressly identified (or do not identify themselves) as being "about women." Work, health, education, science, government, communications, social services, urban development, etc., are all feminist concerns; research, policy, service, and advocacy groups listed under these topic categories can (or may be encouraged to) provide vital learning experiences for women's studies students. 2. Internship Structures/Academic Credit These guides include descriptions of established, full-time, year-long, structured internship programs that require competitive application; they also include descriptions of organizations that will welcome potential volunteers for several hours a week to a limited project assignment or to the ongoing activities of the sponsoring group. Few descriptions announce that academic credit is provided as part of the internship, since credit can only be given by an academic institution. Within limits, these structures and requirements, and the issue of credit, can be "negotiated" and adapted to meet particular needs of students in different academic programs or circumstances. Most internship sponsors can provide information, reports, and evaluations of student internship activities necessary to allow the student to apply to receive credit from her school. Whether the student negotiates for credit in women's studies or in another field, under an "independent study" course or in lieu of another course or requirement, the principle is the same: she will work with a faculty sponsor to translate the potential internship activities into an acceptable learning activity. Often, help in arranging for academic credit is available on campus, in an office designated to deal with off-campus and experiential learning. Many postsecondary institutions are members of the Council for the Advancement of Experiential Learning (CAEL) and have access to CAEL materials developed to assist faculty assessment of learning outside the classroom; many colleges and universities are affiliated with the Washington Center for Learning Alternatives and have access to its brokering service for students seeking internships in the Washington, D.C. area. Many educational institutions offer their own internship or off-campus programs, and/or participate in consortial programs that accept students from all schools in the consortium and, as space is available, will consider applications from other schools. The Great Lakes College Association consortium in Philadelphia is an example of this operation. 3. Beyond These Directories/National-Local Links No single directory, or even combination of directories, can possibly represent the multitude and variety of internships and service learning that exist--or that can be developed--for women's studies students. Used imaginatively and creatively, however, the various guides listed below can suggest further possibilities, in different geographic sites, for example, or concentrating on different topical concerns. Annotations of the guides addressed specifically to women and women's issues indicate that these guides represent what are still beginning or continuing data-gathering efforts. Introducing her section on "Programs for Undergraduate and Graduate Women" in "Internship Programs for Women" Katie Mulligan notes "that the total number of programs mentioned considerably underrepresents the extent of internship opportunities available for undergraduate and graduate women. The Women's College Coalition estimates that more than half of its member institutions have internship programs." And the editors of the WEAL Fund Guide indicate that they did not get responses from many of the more than 100 organizations to which they sent their questionnaire. On the basis of such "leads," one might investigate options at women's colleges in one's vicinity to explore their availability for students from other schools. One could also assume that some of the women's organizations in Washington, D.C. that did not respond to the WEAL questionnaire have since (or will soon be) prepared to welcome student interns; even now, some may consider an individual's proposal although they do not wish to advertise an extensive or continuing capacity to work with interns. And then there are the women's organizations based in New York...Cleveland...San Francisco... Just as there can be no single comprehensive guide to women's studies internships, there is no single comprehensive roster of women's organizations. A Guide to Women's Resources, prepared in 1980 by the Office of Sarah Weddington at the White Houses listed more than 400 areas of principal interest; a similar listing of "National Women's and Women's Rights Organizations" was prepared in 1980 by the Community Relations Division, Office of Congressional and Public Affairs of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. "The Directory of Special Opportunities for Women", published this year by Garrett Park Press, provides state by state lists as well as an alphabetic section of national organizations, associations and government agencies. And there are local and regional "Women's Directories" all over the country, in addition to special-emphasis directories like that prepared by "Media Report to Women". Any organization or agency listed is a potential internship placement site. National organizations have local and state chapters; federal agencies have regional offices; national and state task forces and Public service internships are often modeled on those of county and city levels; local and state women's projects may have information about regional and national networks of similar groups. Many of the internship programs for and about women were created with private or federal funding. The Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education, the Women's Educational Equity Act, other government agencies, and private foundations will, one hopes, continue to support such developments. (In 1980-81, for example, The Center for Field Research, which channels funds to scholars who utilize teams of volunteers in the field, obtained a FIPSE grant to alert more eligible women and minority scholars to the work of the Center, and has thus increased the numbers of projects that may be of interest to women's studies students.) Faculty advisors and women's studies program administrators who read annual reports of funding sources may be able to alert students to internship programs just underway. Students on campus, as well as alumnae, should also consult career services and alumnae offices as a source of information on possible internships. Many institutions have created mechanisms for linking students with alumnae activists and professionals whose own work sites can offer internship experiences. "The Directory of Special Opportunities for Women", 1981, edited by Martha Merrill Dos. Garrett Park Press, Garrett Park, MD 20766. $18.00 prepaid, $19.00 billed. This sourcebook offers over a thousand descriptions of national, state and local programs that will help women enter or re-enter the work force. Section One is an alphabetical listing of national organizations, associations, programs and government agencies. Section Two is divided by states and lists organizations numerically by zip code, including women's studies programs, women's centers, private companies, individual counselors, and city, county and state agencies. Entries describe what the organization does and the services available. Section Three lists women's colleges and universities by state. Section Four includes books, brochures/pamphlets, newsletters, magazines, newspapers, publishing companies and foundations/grants. "The Directory of Public Service Internships", 1980-81, edited by Debra Mann and Randy Bishop. National Society for Internships and Experiential Education, 1735 Eye Street, N.W., Suite 601, Washington, D.C. 20006. $7.00/$4.00 NSIEE members. Women's studies students and faculty advisors will find this a useful guide to investigate for public service internships and fellowship opportunities throughout the United States. Although there is no "Women's Issues" category in the index of programs, the compendium does include listings such as WEAL Fund (a public interest organization committed to equal rights) and the Washington Institute for Women in Politics (a program for undergraduate study of the federal policy-making process) under "Management and Public Policy"; the National Urban Fellows (whose objective is identification and training of women and minorities for urban administrative roles) under "Urban Planning"; and the Center for Law and Public Policy (which includes women's issues among its programs) under "Law and Law Enforcement". While the emphasis of the volume is on graduate, postgraduate, and mid-career opportunities, it describes many organizations that are flexible in terms of intern assignment and/or specifically open to undergraduates. Some specify that they offer academic credit; others, that they pay a stipend or salary. Many of the sponsoring programs are based in the Washington, D.C. area, but also place interns nationally and regionally; the directory has a good selection of state and regional internship programs and clearinghouses. "The Directory of Undergraduate Internships, 1979-80", edited by Debra Mann and Grace E. Hooper, National Society for Internships and Experiential Education, 1735 Eye Street, N.W., Suite 601, Washington, D.C. 20006. $7.00/$4.00 NSIEE members. This directory provides the undergraduate student with a list of internship opportunities available nationwide. Arranged by field, it includes a short section on clearinghouses, economic development, public policy and state government. Each entry includes the name, address and phone number of the internship sponsor; its objectives, sources of funds, program design, placement location; and information on supervisors, student eligibility and recruitment policies. "The Directory of Washington Internships, 1979-80". Compiled and edited by Debra Mann. National Society for Internships and Experiential Education, 1735 Eye Street, N.W., Suite 601, Washington, D.C. 20006. $7.00/$4.00 NSIEE members. Programs are listed by field, with women's issues as one category. Each category section begins with a list of cross-references, to assist students in locating organizations that have women's issues as a secondary focus; approximately 10-15 such listings may be of particular interest to women's studies students. Entries are described by program design, skills needed and the benefits of the experience; the number of intern slots available and the organization's work schedule are also noted. This directory is designed primarily for undergraduate and graduate students; it includes a section on housing possibilities in Washington, D.C., and a bibliography of related resources. "Internships in Washington, D.C. with a Focus on Women", Women's Equity Action League Educational and Legal Defense Fund, 805 15th Street, N.W., Washington,D.C. 20005. $2.50 Student interns at WEAL Fund have recently updated this guide, which now contains 37 entries. In responding to the WEAL Fund questionnaire, some organizations were more complete in their self-descriptions than others, but all indicated that they welcome interns in their women-related work. Information provided includes: Goals of the organization; internship assignments; skills and education necessary; time and length of internship; and application procedure. Among opportunities listed are the National Archives for Black Women's History (where students process and arrange records documenting the history of Black women in the U.S.); Federally Employed Women (where interns lobby, do research and give staff support for improving the status of women in the federal service); the Overseas Education Fund (where students can work on issues related to the integration of Third World women into the socio-economic development of their countries); the Congresswomen's Caucus (whose purpose is to advance legislation of interest to women); organizations such as NOW, AAUW, NWSA, and others. All offer a field supervisor; some can provide information on housing in the area; several offer summer/January term placements; and a few can make work-study funds available. "Stopout! Working Ways to Learn," edited by Joyce Slayton Mitchell, Garrett Park, Press, Garrett Park, MD 20766. $8.50 In this compilation of over 150 organizations interested in working with interns or volunteers, placements are listed by issue category: education, public interest, health, communications, women and minorities. The scope is national. Entries give information on what the organization does; what interns there do; and requirements and procedures for application. "The 1981 Directory of Summer Internships," a biennial publication of the Career Planning Offices of Bryn Mawr and Haverford Colleges, Career Planning Office, Haverford College, Haverford, PA. $8.50 This edition is now out of print, but the 1982 edition will be available in September 1981. Arranged topically, the directory has no specific section on women's issues, but entries under "Public Interest," "Social Services," and "Health" may be among those of interest to women's studies students. Placements listed are located in various regions of the country. An extensive introduction gives information on procedures and reasons for becoming a student intern. "Internships for Women," Katie Mulligan, National Society for Internships and Experiential Education, 1735 Eye Street, N.W., Suite 610, Washington, D.C.20006. $3.00 This 1980 publication identifies 45 internship programs in four major categories: programs for reentry women (12); for low-income women (17); to prepare women for specific professional careers (11); and for undergraduate and graduate women (5). Each internship listing gives information about its purpose, program, source of funding, and policies on stipends, academic credit and fees. Internships in all categories may offer academic credit, and/or may charge tuition or other fees. The author provides analyses of the information included, and discussion of issues involved in the development and support of such internship programs. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES FOR EXPERIENTIAL EDUCATORS The following organizations have additional publications and resources that experiential educators may find useful. For a more complete list of national organizations involved in supporting field experience education, see "The Service-Learning Educator, A Guide to Program Management," available upon request from the National Center for Service-Learning. 1. ACTION/National Center for Service-Learning, formerly National Student Volunteer Program (NSVP) 806 Connecticut Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20525 (Toll-free) 1-800-424-8580, branch 88 or 89 The National Center for Service-Learning supports service learning through training and technical assistance and through the publication of materials designed to help practitioners implement service learning. NCSL publishes "Synergist," a journal appearing three times a year and containing up-to-date information on service learning. All NCSL materials and services are available free of charge. 2. Council for the Advancement of Experiential Learning (CAEL) Lakefront North, Suite 300 Columbia, Maryland 21044 301-997-3535 CAEL is an organization devoted to advancing the cause of experiential education in colleges and universities. CAEL offers a number of services to colleges and universities which join their organization; a number of publications are also available. 3. National Society for Internships and Experiential Education (NSIEE) 1735 Eye Street, N.W. Suite 601 Washington, D.C. 20006 202-331-1516 NSIEE is a clearinghouse for information on internship opportunities nationwide. A newsletter, Experiential Education, is published bi-monthly, as well as four directories listing placement possibilities for undergraduates, graduates and postgraduates. 4. Association for Experiential Education Box 4625 Denver, Colorado 80204 303-837-8633 AEE is an international network of diverse individuals, schools and other education organizations which share a common interest in and commitment to experience-based teaching and learning. AEE publishes the "Journal of Experiential Education" and a newsletter, "Voyageur", and sponsors a major conference each year. MEDIA RESOURCES FOR WOMEN'S STUDIES SERVICE LEARNING COURSES (This list was compiled by Betsy Jameson, Loretto Heights College.) The following are media products which relate to the topic of women's roles in the workforce. When possible, recommendations are included. Otherwise, the distributor's description of the work is given without further evaluation. WHY AREN'T YOU SMILING?: Excellent program about office workers, including the history of the office and the issues which concern women office workers: lack of respect, low pay, lack of advancement, racism, technology, etc. Also highlights working women's organizations and unions. 20 min. slide/tape presentation, Community Media Productions, 215 Superior Ave., Dayton, Ohio 45406. Rental, $30; Sales, $110, plus $4 handling. Highly recommended. THE LIFE AND TIMES OF ROSIE THE RIVETER: A new NEH funded film about the role of women workers during World War II, including their unfulfilled aspirations to continue their jobs after the war. 16 mm. color, 80 minutes, Clarity Educational Productions, Inc., 5915 Hollis St., Emeryville, CA 94608, (415) 655-7150. No price information available at this time. WITH BABIES AND BANNERS: A film which documents women's role in the Great General Motors Sitdown Strike of 1937, a crucial event in the successful CIO drive for industrial unionism. The film draws the connection between the struggles then and today, illustrating the roots of many issues facing today's working women. 16 mm. color, 45 minutes, rentals $60, sales $475, handling $5; New Day Films, P.O. Box 315, Franklin Lakes, N.J. 07417. Highly recommended. GREAT GRANDMOTHER: Portrays the history of women who settled the Canadian Prairies; provides a useful stimulus for discussing wagework vs. housework and for considering the economic values of traditional women's labor. A first-rate film. 16 mm. color, 29 minutes, rental $35, Sales $375, handling $4. New Day Films, P.O. Box 315, Franklin Lakes, N.J. 07417. UNION MAIDS: The 1930's and the birth of the CIO are documented through the eyes of three remarkable women organizers as they recall working conditions, the second-class treatment of women, organizing drives, etc. A study guide and history are available for $1. An outstanding film. 16 mm. black and white, 48 min., rental $60, sales $450, handling $5. New Day Films, P.O. Box 315, Franklin Lakes, N.J. 07417. Highly recommended. SEXUAL HARASSMENT: NO PLACE IN THE WORKPLACE- Features Gloria Steinem and Lynn Farley (author of SEXUAL SHAKEDOWN) discussing the problems of sexual harassment as encountered by many women in the workplace. 3/4" color video cassette, rental $20/3 days + 10% per additional day; sale $175. Michigan Media, 400 Fourth St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109. CAUTION: WOMEN WORKING: Features Sheila Ritter, folk singer/composer, exploring the plight of women in working class jobs through songs she has composed as well as the songs of other musicians. A musical documentary of women as wives, factory workers, career seekers. 3/4" video cassette, color; rental $20/3 days + 10% per additional day; sale $175. Michigan Media, 400 Fourth St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109. THE ISSUE AT HAND--WHERE ARE WOMEN GOING?: The impact of the women's movement on employment, men, family structure, and divorce rates. 3/4" color video cassette, 29 min.; rental $20/3 days + 10% per additional day; sale $175. Michigan Media, 400 Fourth St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109. HEALTH CARING FROM OUR END OF THE SPECTRUM: A first-rate film about women's experiences with the present health care system and about alternative feminist approaches and agencies. Appropriate particularly for service learning placements in health care. 16 mm. color, 32 min. Rental $40 + $5 handling; sale $375. Women Make Movies, Inc., 257 West 19th Street, New York, NY 10011. (212) 929-6477. Recommended. AIN'T NOBODY'S BUSINESS BUT MY OWN: A documentary on prostitution featuring scenes with six prostitutes, a male member of the vice squad, and Margo St. James, as well as the First World Meeting of Prostitutes in Washington, D.C. 16 mm. color, 52 min., rental $50. Mountain Moving PRODUCTIONS, P.O. Box 1235, Evergreen, CO 80439. (303) 838-6426. SONG OF THE CANARY: A powerful documentary about the dangers of the American workplace, including workers who have been sterilized using a powerful farm pesticide, "brown lung" among cotton mill workers, etc. Not restricted to women workers, but still powerful and pertinent. 16 mm. color, 58 min. (or two half hour segments); rental $65 ($5 handling), sale $675. New Day Films, P.O. Box 315, Franklin Lakes, N.J. 07417. THE ALL-ROUND REDUCED PERSONALITY: A sensitive and humorous portrait of the challenges facing a young single mother in West Berlin who has decided to run her own life and must cope with the conflicting demands of home, daughter, and her career as a photographer. Directed by Helke Sander, one of Germany's leading feminist filmmakers. 16 mm. black and white, 98 min., German dialogue with English subtitles. Unifilm, 1550 Bryant Street, San Francisco, CA 94103;(415) 864-7755; 419 Park Ave. South, New York, NY 10016. (212) 686-9890. Write for catalogue. THE DOUBLE DAY: Gives comprehensive and accurate report on Latin American working class women; the title derives from the struggle to fulfill both family and work responsibilities--hence a "double jornada" or double day. Looks at the double bind of sex and class in a variety of occupational settings; peasant women, market women, factory women, domestic servants, and women mine workers. 16 mm. color, 53 min. Rental $75/$125; sale $675. Tricontinental Film Center, 333 Sixth Ave., New York, NY 10014. (212) 989-3330. Or P.O. Box 4430, Berkeley, CA 94704. (415) 548-3204. Available in English and Spanish versions. Highly recommended. BLOW FOR BLOW: A dramatic reconstruction of the successful strike and occupation by women workers of a French textile factory. Produced by a collective of over 100 workers, students, filmmakers, and performers, the film is based on several real factory takeovers that have occurred recently in France. 16 mm. color, 89 minutes, French with English subtitles. Rental $75 (for class under 100), purchase $1,150. Tricontinental Film Center, 333 Sixth Ave., New York, NY 10014, or P.O. Box 4430, Berkeley, CA 94704. NINE TO FIVE: A compelling film made for national educational television. The film takes you into offices and you see women at their day-to-day jobs, talking about both problems and rewards. Made in conjunction with 9 to 5, Boston's Organization for Women Office Workers. 16 mm., 28 minutes, suggested donation $25. 9 to 5 Organization for Women Office Workers, 140 Clarendon St., Boston, MA 02116. (617) 536-6003. KATY: Relates the overt prejudice that Katy, a preadolescent girl, experiences when she becomes her brother's substitute on his paper route. 16 mm. color. Rental $9.75, Indiana University, Audio-Visual Center, Bloomington, Indiana47401. (812) 337-2103. BACK TO SCHOOL, BACK TO WORK: A STIMULUS FILM FOR WOMEN: Presents a variety of simulated responses likely to be elicited by a woman's decision to return to school or work. Pauses after each presentation to facilitate discussion. 16 mm.color, 21 min. Rental $9.75, Indiana University, Audio-Visual Center, Bloomington, Indiana 47401. LOOKING AT TOMORROW--WHAT WILL YOU CHOOSE? Examines seven young women at various jobs ranging from bricklayer to congresswoman to explore the wide variety of career opportunities available in today's world. 16 mm. color, 15 min. Rental $9.25. Indiana University, Audio-Visual Center, Bloomington, Indiana 47401. WOMEN IN COMMUNICATIONS: Portrays three women who are successfully engaged in careers in communication which have traditionally been considered masculine fields: reporting, filmmaking, and radio announcing. 16 mm. color, 15 min. Rental $9.25. Indiana University, Audio-Visual Center, Bloomington, Indiana 47401. JOB DISCRIMINATION: DOING SOMETHING ABOUT IT: This film looks at several cases of sex discrimination in employment, with Harriett Rabb, Assistant Dean of the Columbia University Law School, offering a step-by-step analysis of how to recognize, document, and combat such cases. The need to organize for group action, the desirability of legal help, and the emotional strain involved in any prolonged fight against discrimination are covered. Produced in collaboration with Ms. magazine, produced by WNET/13. 16 mm. color, 59 min. Purchase $580; videocassette purchase $405. Rental available, price not given. Indiana University, Audio-Visual Center, Bloomington, Indiana 47401. CRYSTAL LEE JORDAN: This film follows Crystal Lee Jordan--wife, mother, bluecollar worker--in her attempt to establish a union at the J.P. Stevens textile mills in Roanoke Rapids, N.C. Ms. Jordan was fired after spending 17 of her 34 years as a millhand. We see her trying to organize other women and with her family, which supports her struggle. 16 mm. color, 16 min. Purchase $210; rental available. Indiana University, Audio-Visual Center, Bloomington, Indiana 47401. WOMEN AND CAREERS: Interviews with Betty Harrigan, author of GAMES MOTHER NEVER TAUGHT YOU and others. Content includes status of working women, sex discrimination laws, the socialization process, need for role models, etc. For women trying to make it by male rules. I find this videotape an offensive put-down of women's culture, good for critiquing by a sophisticated class, but dangerous for less aware students. 3/4" video, color, 50 minutes. Sale $75 to California State Universities, $250 others. L.H. Schmunk, Instructional Media, Center 005, California State University, Chico, CA 95929. CHANGING IMAGES: CONFRONTING CAREER STEREOTYPES: Reveals the influence of sex role stereotypes in the career expectations of elementary school children.Includes sequences in which children begin to argue about their sex role beliefs regarding football players, nurses, racing-car drivers, secretaries, and family and household work. 16 mm. and video. Rental $14, sale $130, film or video. Available for preview . University of California, Extension Media Service, 2223 Fulton Street, Berkeley, CA 94720. (415) 642-5578 (to purchase) or (415) 642-0460 (to rent or preview). WORKING FOR YOUR LIFE: A Labor Occupational Health Program film production, this film focuses on the hazards faced by today's 43 million American working women. It is the only documentary film specifically about the health and safety of women on the job. Filmed in 40 different workplaces, both traditional and non-traditional jobs for women, including a smelter worker who had to choose between losing her job and being sterilized. 16 mm. color, 57 minutes. Rental $65, sale $475. Video cassettes also available. To rent: LOHP Films, Transit Media, 779 Susquehanna Ave., Franklin Lakes, N.J. 07417. For purchase or general information: LOHP Films, University of California, Center for Labor Research and Education, Institute of Industrial Relations, 2521 Channing Way, Berkeley, CA 94720. POSSIBLE GOALS FOR SERVICE LEARNING IN WOMEN'S STUDIES (Compiled by Ruth Ekstrom, for the Women's Studies Service Learning Institute, March 1980.) -Ability to identify when sex-stereotyping, sex bias and discrimination occur, who is transmitting or causing these problems. Examples of different treatment of males and females with the same aptitudes, abilities, interests, needs. Examples of different futures/careers suggested for males and females with the same aptitudes, abilities, interests, needs. Examples of when females with equivalent qualifications, experience, and performance as males do not share equally in decision making or receive equal rewards (money, promotion, prestige, professional recognition, honors). Examples in interpersonal interaction. Examples in books, tests, films, TV, etc. -Ability to describe techniques for creating social change. -Ability to identify target groups that will best deal with the cause (source) of the stereo type/problem. Example: Book publishers may be reached directly but may be more responsive to pressure from book purchasers (teachers, etc.). Example: Programs to encourage women to enter academic administration may have very limited impact if the hiring authority (school/governing board) holds stereotyped views about women's ability to lead. -Ability to "come in from the side" if a problem cannot be changed by direct means. Example: If you can't get school board/publishers to stop having biased textbooks, you can "defuse" the impact of the books by showing teachers how to use them as examples of bias. -Ability to make individuals aware that they hold biased or stereotyped views and to do it in such a manner that they will not become so angry or guilty that change will be impossible. -Ability to identify what incentives for change there are in groups that hold biased/stereotyped views and to make these incentives workable options. -Ability to create and implement an intervention treatment, such as, modeling of preferred behavior or introduction of information to correct stereotypes and create social change. -Ability to evaluate and monitor-attitudes and behaviors to determine if the intervention has been successful and the desired changes have occurred. -Knowledge of the literature on designing social change in an educational setting, organization, etc. -Knowledge of the characteristics of individuals who are more open to social change (young, high social-status, self-confident, risk takers). -Knowledge of the characteristics of innovations and social changes that make them more readily acceptable (proven quality, low cost, divisible in parts or segments, easily communicated to others, not complex, have strong leadership, and have an effective system of rewards). -Knowledge of characteristics that make an educational change most likely to be accepted (compatible with values and existing practices of adopters, group is ready for change, acceptable to surrounding community). WORKSHEET A: STUDENT GOAL ANALYSIS ("Developing Learning Outcomes," 1978, J. Marvin Cook, a publication of the Council for the advancement of Experiential Learning.) The nine categories summarized below represent broad types of learning goals. The examples are cited to help illustrate some types of concrete learning outcomes that might be involved. After studying these, rank the areas on the left from one to nine in importance to you as learning goals. On the right, indicate, if you can, the policy of your institution toward each category, using the following code: A--required in your program B--encouraged of students but not required C--may be recognized through credit or other means, although either required nor encouraged C--not recognized Your 1. "Specific Job Competencies"--Particular Institutional rank understandings or work skills you would like Policy code to learn, such as surveying, operating a particular business machine, art work in a special medium, photographic developing, tutoring, office management, cost accounting, _____ editing, counseling the elderly. _________ 2. "Career Exploration"--First-hand observations of the daily routine of professionals in an area of interest, direct involvement in the types of work in a field, knowledge of job opportunities that might be available, familiarity with ______ occupational literature and organizations. _________ 3. "Broadening Horizons"--Understanding how the legislative process works, familiarity with the bureaucracy of public agencies, understanding why social programs sometimes do not work well, getting a better grasp of the social role that ______ organizations play and the values they hold. _________ 4. "Learning about Work"--Learning how to make your way through a complex hiring process, understanding the fringe benefits and personnel policies that affect your welfare, learning how such practices are related to laws concerning ______ employment. _________ 5. Interpersonal Skills--Learning how to deal with pressure and tension in work relationships, how to communicate what you know to strangers, recognizing when to speak and when to listen in work relationships, learning how to handle criticism, how to convince a supervisor to try ______ out an idea of yours. _________ 6. Learning from the Local Environment-- Understanding the unique history and character of an area, an institution, a community, or work- place; using the special resources of an area to further your own understanding of a particular interest like music, social organization or ______ systems analysis. _________ 7. Taking Responsibility--Learning how to organize a complicated job, how to monitor your own time and effort so that a tight schedule can be met, how to get a piece of work done so that it fits in with the work of others, how to take initiative in getting something difficult ______ accomplished. _________ 8. Research Skills--Learning how to seek new information, how to organize facts into a persuasive argument or course of action, how to relate academic knowledge to the demands of a ______ particular job. _________ 9. Other Goals--Recreation, exploration of other materials, learning how to furnish an apartment ______ and cope alone. _________ WORKSHEET B: ITEMS TO CLARIFY BEFORE ACCEPTING A WORK EXPERIENCE OFFER 1. The name of the individual to whom you will be responsible while you are involved in the experience. 2. What are the working hours, and how flexible will your schedule be with regard to your specific responsibilities? 3. How much will you be paid, and how often? 4. What is the exact nature of your responsibilities? a. What are the specific duties for which you will be responsible? b. What kinds of day-to-day assignments can you expect to receive at the initiative of your supervisor and others? 5. List any unusual requirements in connection with the work that concern such matters as medical examinations, overtime work, or any personal expenses required. 6. Where will you be working throughout your experience, and will any travel be necessary in the work? 7. If any special housing or eating arrangements will be required, list them. 8. If you are aware of any hazardous work conditions that you might expect to encounter, list them. WORKSHEET C: ANALYSIS OF SPECIFIC LEARNING OBJECTIVES List below, within the nine broad categories, the specific learning objectives you might expect to accomplish through your field experience. Refer to Worksheet A for examples of specific earning objectives in each of the nine categories. 1. Specific Job Competencies 2. Career Exploration 3. Broadening Horizons 4. Learning about Work 5. Interpersonal Skills 6. Learning from the Local Environment 7. Taking Responsibility 8. Research Skills 9. Other Goals (not necessarily related directly to learning) CONTRIBUTORS' NOTES Alwynelle Ahl is a professor in the Department of Natural Science at Michigan State University, specializing in zoology and biology. She has supervised many women's studies students during independent study on women and biology. Recently, she and Amy Moss submitted a paper to Ms. called "Pregnancy and Predicting Medicine: A Neglected Area of Women's Health." M. Sue Wagner is the Legislative Liaison for Michigan NOW. She is an elected member of the state board, and coordinates between NOW's lobbyist board and membership. Her interests include work on legislative issues with the Michigan Consumer Council. Lizette Bartholdi is hard at work on her B.A. in women's studies. She loves women's music and is involved with a holistic health care clinic in Minneapolis. Laurie Bushbaum graduated as a women's studies student in June, 1980, then spent the summer in Scandanavia where she studied the language and absorbed the culture. One of her hobbies is quilting. Debra Horn is a linguistics major. She plays the French horn and enjoys traveling. Denise A. Johnson is in her last year working toward a B.A. in social work at the University of Minnesota. She would like to work with children upon graduation. Kimberly Reynolds-Heiam continues to be an active member of NOW, working for passage of the ERA. She studies pre-med at the University of Minnesota. Karen Theiler, from Fridley, Minnesota, is an English major at the University of Minnesota. She currently lives in Minneapolis. Robin Williams-Johnson lives in St. Paul with her two daughters and her husband. Currently she is studying creative writing and Spanish, intending to continue developing her language skills in Mexico next year. She would like to go on to graduate school in women's studies. Marti Bombyk is a doctoral candidate in social work and psychology at the University of Michigan. She has taught women's studies for four years, developing "Women in the Community" as well as courses about the family and social work practice. A political activist, she has experienced working with both the feminist and labor markets. Ellen Cassedy was recently appointed Program Director of Working Women, a two year project funded by FIPSE to develop, test and disseminate a counseling and curriculum program for mid-life and older women workers. Before becoming one of the founders and staff director of 9to5, she was a clerk-typist at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. Barbara Hillyer Davis is Director of the Women's Studies Program of the University of Oklahoma and a member of the Policy Committee of the Women's Resource Center of Norman, Oklahoma. She has been treasurer of the Steering Committee of the National Women's Studies Association, and has been active in the development of the South Central Women's Studies Association. Ruth Ekstrom is a Senior Research Scientist in the Division of Educational Research and Evaluation at Educational Testing Services. She is Directing two research projects on life experience learning of adult women and its relevance to paid employment. Maxine Forman is the Associate Director of the WEAL Fund Intern Program, and former English teacher in the New York City high schools. She received an M.A. from George Washington University in 1976 as a "returning woman." In graduate school she focused on domestic violence and on sex discrimination in educational policy and practices at the local and federal levels. She views her teaching experience as well as her background in women's studies and women's issues as assets in working with interns at the Fund. Patty Gibbs is a doctoral degree candidate in the College of Human Resources and Education at West Virginia University. She specializes in curriculum development and incorporating women's studies in the undergraduate social work curriculum. For the past three years she has been placing and advising social work students in their practice and teaching a women's studies course in social work. Kathryn Girard is currently co-directing Project TEAM (Teaching Equity Approaches in Massachusetts). She has been involved in the women's movement for the past ten years, working with campus-based women's centers and other feminist organizations. She also chairs The Academic Council of Beacon College, a post-secondary institution for self-directed learning. Thomas Haugsby serves on the Board of Directors of the National Society for Internships and Experiential Education. He has authored several articles on learning and experiential-based education. He is an Associate Professor of Cooperative Education at Antioch College. Betsy Jameson is the director of the Research Center on Women and the Women's Studies Minor at Loretto Heights College in Denver. A Ph.D. candidate in American Culture at the University of Michigan, her major fields are women's history and working class history. Recently Betsy produced an hour-long slide tape on working class families in the Cripple Creek gold mining district. Her interest in service learning dates back to her undergraduate experiences at Antioch College. Toni Johnson is currently an undergraduate student majoring in Government and Politics. She plans to attend law school in the fall, where she expects to specialize in women's and domestic law. Melanie Kaye is a long time activist and women's studies teacher, currently at Goddard College and University of New Mexico, Albuquerque. She is a poet (We Speak in Code, Motheroot, 1980) and writer, published in various lesbian and feminist journals and anthologies. She works in the movement to stop violence against women and is co-authoring a book on women and violence. Amy Moss has just finished her senior year at Michigan State University. Currently she works with the State Legislative office, partly as a result of her service learning experience as an undergraduate. Amy looks forward to graduate school in Public Affairs/Public Administration. Carolyn Mulford was a freelance writer of travel articles and a Peace Corps volunteer in Ethiopia before she assumed her current position as editor of "Synergist", a quarterly published by the National Center for Service-Learning. She is also on the staff of the NEA Journal. Phyllis Palmer taught women's history at Mount Holyoke for five years, then began as Academic Coordinator of George Washington University's Women's Studies Masters Program. She is also coordinating Congressional Fellowships on Women and Public Policy at George Washington University. Sharon Rubin, who is Director of Experiential Learning Programs at the University of Maryland, College Park, has been involved with women's studies since teaching her first course on women in 1971. A member of the Women's Studies Advisory Committee at College Park, she is particularly interested in the concerns of returning women students. As a Kellogg Fellow, 1980-1983, she will be spending part of her time exploring personnel policies and decision-making in large corporations. Laura Polla Scanlon has long been involved in student-centered service learning. She completed her doctorate at Union Graduate School and has been both a teacher and curriculum developer with the National Congress of Neighborhood Women College Program. Currently director of NCNW's Education Program, she is able to integrate her interest in experiential learning with feminist education and community development. Nancy Schniedewind coordinates women's studies at S.U.N.Y./New Paltz, where she is an Associate Professor of Educational Studies. Having taught women's studies for eight years, she is now developing a course called "Issues of Racism" and working under a WEAA grant to complete "Won for All," an educational board game about women's and minority history. Carolyn Shrewsbury directs the women's studies program at Mankato State University in Minnesota. She has chaired the Minnesota State College System on the Status of Women and has been active in supporting the leadership potential of community women. As a supervisor of women studies interns for over two years, she is particularly interested in discovering ways to convince traditional organizations that women studies students have something meaningful to offer them. Robert Sigmon is assistant director of the Wake Area Health Education Center in Raleigh, North Carolina. He has helped develop and manage service learning models in South Carolina, North Carolina, Georgia and Tennessee. Ann Simon describes herself as an experiential educator at Antioch College where she is also a member of the Women's Studies Coordinating Committee. In the community of Yellow Springs, Ohio, she has been involved in various feminist activities and has served in the Yellow Springs Public School System as a Resource Teacher on Non-Sexist Curriculum Development and Title IX Compliance Offices. Judy Sorum, Special Assistant to the Secretary, Department of Labor, plans in the near future to write about the experiences of women in top level government positions. Previous to her White House Fellowship, she directed The Experiential Learning Program at the University of Maryland, taught "Women in Drama," and chaired the Women's Commission from 1975 to 1977. Stacey Zlotnick is director of a National Science Foundation project which concerns the development, implementation and assessment of career intervention programs for women. She has co-taught "Women and MAdness" and run groups on contraception at the University of Maryland. She was a panelist at the NWSA Service LEarnign Institute in March 1980. ABOUT THE EDITORS Jerilyn Fisher In addition to coordinating the NWSA Service Learning Project, Jerilyn Fisher directs the Internship Program in Women's Studies at the University of Maryland. She also teaches an interdisciplinary seminar about criminally deviant women in the General Honors Program and will soon teach a new course, "Witches and Saints." Elaine Reuben Elaine Reuben, Project Director, is National Coordinator of the National Women's Studies Association, and Adjunct Associate Professor of Women's Studies at the University of Maryland, College Park. She has taught and supervised women's studies internship students at the University of Maryland and at The George Washington University, where she was Director of Women's Studies from 1975 to 1977.