This file was prepared for electronic distribution by the inforM staff.
Questions or comments should be directed to

                           APPENDIX C

                      SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Adelman, Clifford. Performance and Judgment: Essays on Principles
     and Practice in the Assessment of College Student Learning.
     Washington: Office of Educational Research and Improvement,
     U.S. Department of Education, 1988.
This collection of essays on assessment in higher education is
directed toward academic administrators and faculty members. It
provides a basis for drafting a charge to an assessment committee,
communicating effectively regarding assessment, and evaluating
assessment designs.

Astin, Alexander. Achieving Educational Excellence: A Critical
     Assessment of Priorities and Practices in Higher Education.
     San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1985.
Astin's book presents views of the American higher education system
and traditional concepts of excellence. It includes examinations of
educational equity, student learning and development, and the role
of teacher training.

_____________. Assessment for Excellence: The Philosophy and
     Practice of Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education. New
     York: American Council on Education and Macmillan Company,

_____________. What Matters in College: Four Critical Years. San
     Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1992.

Banta, Trudy W., ed. New Directions for Institutional Research,
     No. 59. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1988.
Articles within this volume reflect both the benefits of
comprehensive assessment programs and their problems. It includes
an annotated bibliography and representative assessment programs.
The volume also contains "Implementing Outcomes Assessment: Promise
and Perils," which examines what students and graduates know and
what they are able to do with that knowledge and presents students'
perceptions regarding the quality of programs and services.

Belanoff, Pat, and Marcia Dickson, eds. Portfolios: Process and
     Product. Portsmouth, N.H.: Boynton/Cook Publishers, 1991.
Focusing on the practical and theoretical approaches of portfolio
assessment, this work offers places to start and covers recent
developments in the field of assessment. One section, "Bridges to
Academic Goals: A Look at Returning Adult Portfolios," includes
information on portfolios for proficiency testing, program
assessment, classroom portfolios, and political issues.

Belenky, Mary Field, Blythe McVicker Clinchy, Nancy Rule
     Goldberger, and Jill Mattuck Tarule. Women's Ways of Knowing:
     The Development of Self, Voice, and Mind. New York: Basic
     Books, 1986.
Based on extensive interviews with women, this landmark book
examines five principal ways of knowing developed by women:
silence, received knowing, subjective knowing, procedural knowing,
and constructed knowing. The investigation acknowledges the
historical and cultural institutions that have shaped women's
intellectual and personal lives.

Boyer, Ernest L. College: The Undergraduate Experience in America.
     New York: Harper & Row, 1987.
Boyer's work examines the undergraduate experience and explores how
institutional structures and procedures affect students' lives.

Cross, K. Patricia, and Thomas A. Angelo. Classroom Assessment
     Techniques: A Handbook for Faculty. Ann Arbor: National Center
     for Research to Improve Postsecondary Teaching and Learning,
     University of Michigan, 1988.
A reference book for ideas and guidance on assessment, this work
includes the following sections: "Techniques for Assessing Academic
Skills and Intellectual Development"; "Techniques for Assessing
Students' Self-Awareness as Learners and Self-Assessments of
Learning Skills"; and "Techniques for Assessing Student Reactions
to Teachers and Teaching Methods, Course Materials, Activities, and

___________. A Handbook for College Teachers. San Francisco:
     Jossey-Bass, 1992.
This volume is designed as a companion to Cross and Angelo's
earlier volume, A Handbook for Faculty. This new edition, however,
is organized with a focus on various academic disciplines.

Erwin, T. Dary. Assessing Student Learning and Development. San
     Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1991.
A practical guide to designing and implementing strategies for
evaluating the effectiveness of institutional programs and
services, this book includes chapters on "Selecting Assessment
Methods" and "Analyzing Information and Drawing Conclusions." It
also contains sample instruments.

Ewell, Peter T. Assessing Educational Outcomes. New Directions for
     Institutional Research, No. 47. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass,
Ewell's work includes an overview of research on student attitudes,
achievement, and occupational and career development ("outcomes")
and presents information on the organization and implementation of
such programs in various settings. It also contains basic technical
information regarding the design of studies and use of results.

Ewell, Peter T. and Robert P. Lisensky. Assessing Institutional
     Effectiveness. Washington: Consortium for the Advancement of
     Private Higher Education, 1988.
This book includes the authors' observations on their experiences
during an assessment project with selected private liberal arts
colleges. It defines learning outcomes and offers ways to determine
strategies for measuring them.

Halpern, D. F., ed. Student Outcomes Assessment: What Institutions
     Stand to Gain. New Directions for Higher Education, No. 59.
     San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 1987.
Includes articles exploring a variety of issues and concerns
regarding student outcomes assessment.  Four models of assessment
are included: the value-added approach, general-education approach,
state-mandated testing, and incentive funding.

Johnson, Reid, Joseph Prus, Charles J. Andersen, and Elaine
     El-Khawas. Assessing Assessment: An In-depth Status Report on
     the Higher Education Assessment Movement in 1990. Washington:
     American Council on Education, 1991.
This book includes an "overall picture" of assessment and examines
faculty members' roles as well as the perceived benefits and
liabilities of assessment.

Magolda, Marcia B. Baxter. Knowing and Reasoning in College: Gender
     Related Patterns in Students' Intellectual Development. San
     Francisco: Jossey Bass, 1992.

Seidman, E. In the Words of the Faculty: Perspectives on Improving
     Teaching and Educational Quality in Community College. San
     Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1985.
Seidman's work examines the context of teaching in a community
college and the major issues faculty members face. It presents
profiles of community college faculty members and suggests ways
institutions can support them.

Astin, Alexander. "Assessment as a Tool for Institutional Renewal
     and Reform." Wolff, Ralph A. "Assessment and Accreditation: A
     Shotgun Marriage?" In Assessment 1990: Accreditation and
     Renewal, a volume of two presentations from the Fifth American
     Association for Higher Education Conference on Assessment in
     Higher Education, 1990.

Brown, Rexford. "You Can't Get There From Here." Ewell, Peter T.
"Hearts and Minds: Reflections on the Ideologies of Assessment."
Knefelkamp, Lee. "Assessment as Transformation." Three
Presentations: 1989, a volume of three presentations from the
Fourth American Association for Higher Education Conference on
Assessment in Higher Education, 1989.

Cross, K. Patricia. "Feedback in the Classroom: Making Assessment
     Matter." Paper presented at American Association for Higher
     Education Assessment Forum, Chicago, 1988.
This article examines the use of assessment within the classroom to
improve instruction as well as the quality of education.

Davis, B. G. "Demystifying Assessment: Learning from the Field of
     Evaluation." In Achieving Assessment Goals Using Evaluation
     Techniques, New Directions for Higher Education, No. 67. P.).
     Gray, ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1989.

Ewell, Peter T. "Assessment: What's It All About." Change 17
     (November/December 1985): 32-36.
Ewell's article contains descriptions of institutional
accountability in higher education based on measuring objective
outcomes. It also discusses whether assessment can be performed
objectively and what effects external accountability pressures have
on higher education practices.

___________. "Establishing a Campus-Based Assessment Program." In
     D. F. Halpern, ed. Student Outcomes Assessment: What
     Institutions Stand to Gain. New Directions for Higher
     Education, No. 59. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1987.
An introduction to assessment. Provides practical information,
thoughtful discussion, and suggestions for implementing an
assessment program.

___________. "To Capture the Ineffable: New Forms of Assessment in
     Higher Education," in Reprise 1991: Reprints of Two Papers
     Treating Assessment's History and Implementation. Washington:
     American Association for Higher Education, 1991.
The first part of Ewell's article provides a historical and
political context for assessment and sets the stage for part two--a
critical review of current practice and includes extensive

Forrest, Aubrey, ed. Time Will Tell: Portfolio-Assisted Assessment
     of General Education. Washington: American Association for
     Higher Education, 1990.
This report is a comprehensive guide to the implementation and use
of student portfolios to assess general education outcomes at
individual and program levels.

Hutchings, Pat. "Assessment and the Way We Work." Wiggins, Grant.
     "The Truth May Make You Free, but the Test May Keep You
     Imprisoned: Toward Assessment Worthy of the Liberal Arts." In
     Assessment 1990: Understanding the Implications, a volume of
     three presentations from the Fifth American Association for
     Higher Education Conference on Assessment in Higher Education,

Hutchings, Pat. Behind Outcomes: Contexts and Questions for
     Assessment. Washington: American Association for Higher
     Education. 1989.
Setting forth nine areas of inquiry for assessment that get "behind
outcomes," Hutchings presents appropriate methods for addressing
each area and resources for further work.

Hutchings, Pat, and Ted Marchese. "Watching Assessment: Questions,
     Stories, Prospects." Change 22 (September/October 1990).
Based on observations over a four-year period, Hutchings and
Marchese's article takes the reader to campuses for a first-hand
look at assessment's effect.

Hutchings, Pat, Ted Marchese, and Barbara Wright. Using Assessment
     to Strengthen General Education. Washington: American
     Association for Higher Education, 1991.
This article is aimed at those familiar with assessment hut not as
familiar with recent developments in the field. It includes
"Stories from the Field" (five campuses), resources, and
reflections of assessment practitioners.

Involvement in Learning: Realizing the Potential of American Higher
     Education. Final Report of the Study Group on the Condition of
     Excellence in American Higher Education. Washington: National
     Institute of Education, 1985.

Paskow, Jacqueline, ed. Assessment Programs and Projects: A
     Directory (1987 Updated by Elizabeth A. Francis, (1990).
     Washington: American Association for Higher Education.
This report contains concise descriptions of thirty assessment
projects implemented on campuses across the country.

Rossman, J. E., and Elaine El-Khawas. "Thinking About Assessment:
     Perspectives for Presidents and Chief Academic Officers."
     Washington: American Council on Education and American
     Association for Higher Education, 1987.
Aimed at administrators, this article provides an overview of

Shapiro, Joan Poliner. "Nonfeminist and Feminist Students at Risk:
     The Use of Case Study Analysis While Transforming the
     Postsecondary Curriculum." Women's Studies International Forum
     13 (1990): 553-64.
This paper turns to the use of case studies of students to help
create a more positive learning environment in women's studies
classrooms. lt is an attempt to remove a chilly classroom climate
from feminist classes by enabling students to understand and
respect differences.

Shapiro. Joan P., Ann Butchart, and Cynthia Secor. "Illuminative
     Evaluation: Assessment of the Transportability of a Management
     Training Program for Women in Higher Education." Educational
     Evaluation and Policy Analysis 5 (1983): 456-71.
This is a very early description of the use of illuminative
evaluation and its compatibility with women's studies projects. It
shows how effective this form of evaluation can be with feminist
projects because it combines qualitative and quantitative
assessment and allows the problem to define the methods.

Shapiro, Joan P., and Beth Reed. "Considerations of Ethical Issues
     in the Assessment of Feminist Projects: A Case Study Using
     Illuminative Evaluation." In Feminist Ethics and Social
     Science Research, Nebraska Feminist Collective, eds. New York:
     Mellon Press, 1988.
This chapter focuses on ethics as it relates to evaluating feminist
projects. Illuminative evaluation in relationship to feminist
projects is explored, but the concept of objectivity in the
assessment process is critiqued.

Shapiro, Joan P., and Beth Reed. "Illuminative Evaluation: Meeting
     the Special Needs of Feminist Projects." Humanity and Society
     8 ( 1984): 432 41.
This article argues that illuminative evaluation is especially
useful for feminist projects because it assumes that total
objectivity in evaluation is neither possible nor desirable and
because it is well-suited to innovative projects.

Shapiro, Joan P., and Carroll Smith-Rosenberg. "The 'Other Voices'
     in Contemporary Ethical Dilemmas: The Value of the New
     Scholarship on Women in the Teaching of Ethics." Women's
     Studies International Forum 12 (1989): 199-211.
This article demonstrates the use of students' journal entries to
assess student learning. Through their own words, students show
growth in understanding differences and analyses of complex ethical

Stark, Joan S., Kathleen M. Shaw, and Malcolm A. Lowther. "Student
     Goals for College and Courses: A Missing Link in Assessing and
     Improving Academic Achievement." ASHE-ERIC Report No. 6.
     Washington: ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education, George
     Washington University, 1989.

Tetreault, Mary Kay Thompson. "Feminist Phase Theory: An
     Experience-Derived Evaluation Model." In Journal of Higher
     Education 56 (July/August 1985): 363-84.
This article is an extension of Tetreault's work on feminist phase

Tetreault, Mary Kay Thompson. "Integrating Content About Women and
     Gender into the Curriculum." In Multicultural Education:
     Issues and Perspectives, James A. Banks and Cherry A. McGee
     Banks, eds. Boston: Allyn and Beacon, 1989. 
To create a gender-balanced multicultural curriculum where gender
is interwoven with ethnicity, race, and class, Tetreault introduces
the concept of feminist phase theory. She divides curricular
thinking into five common phases: male-defined, contribution,
bifocal, women's, and gender-balanced.

Wright, Barbara. "An Assessment Primer." Metropolitan Universities:
     An International Forum 3 (Spring 1993): 7-15.
Barbara Wright, former Director of the American Association for
Higher Education's Assessment Forum, has written an introductory
essay exploring the relation of assessment to improving teaching
and learning. As guest editor for the Spring 1993 issue on
assessment for Metropolitan Universities, Wright includes articles
on portfolios, performance assessment in professional majors,
assessment and diversity, and participatory assessment. See also
several assessment articles in Volume 4, Number 1.

Assessment Update. Trudy W. Banta, ed. Knoxville, Tenn.: Center for
     Assessment Research and Development, University of Tennessee-
     Knoxville. Published quarterly by Jossey-Bass.
Begun in spring 1989, this publication's regular features include
"Campus Profiles," which describes assessment projects at different
campuses; "From The States," which reviews state-mandated
assessment initiatives; information about projects at community
colleges; recent developments in assessment; opinions; and new