Alice Paul
born January 11, 1885, died July 9, 1977

While studying in England, a young Alice Paul became involved with the feminist movement. Before leaving England, Paul was arrested seven times and jailed at least three for her suffragist activities. When she returned to the United States, Paul joined, then left the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA). Thinking the NAWSA too mainstream, she founded the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage (CUWS) in 1913. The CUWS later merged with the Woman's Party to form the National Woman's Party, of which Paul was the first chair. Until the Nineteenth Amendment was passed in 1919, and ratified in 1920, Paul was an ardent supporter of suffrage, and even met with President Woodrow Wilson to urge him to support suffrage. After the amendment was passed, Paul continued her feminist work. In 1923, she drafted the Equal Rights Amendment, and largely through her influence was able to get the ERA through Congress in 1970. The amendment later failed to be ratified by two-thirds of the states.